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Shiite Catechism for University Students بازديد: 2220

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Shiite Catechism for University Students

Religious Precepts on Taqlid, Prayer and Fasting, Marriage,
Looking and Veiling, Music, Banking, Medicine,
Travelling Abroad, University Students,...

Representative Office for IRI Leadership in Universities
Vicegerency of Strategic Studies
Office for Consultation and Answering

Compiled by: Sayyid Mujtaba Husseini

Translated by: Hussein Masoody



Religious Precepts on Taqlid
Question no. 1: What do “Ijtihad” (legal reasoning) and “Taqlid” (following) mean?
Literally, “ijtihad” means “trying hard as far as one can” accompanied by difficulty and pain. In jurisprudential terms, it means: “trying to acquire religious precepts through methods and sources1 common to Muslim jurists. Thus, a mujtahid is one who is able to acquire the religious precepts through reasoning and to act according to his own opinion.2
Taqlid means following and imitating; in jurisprudential terms, it means “acting according to what the mujtahid decides in religious precepts as an expert opinion”.
It is worth noting that while the word taqlid (meaning unconditional following) is unwelcome, a moqalled is a person who uses the product of the scientific efforts of a mujtahid, relegating the responsibility of right or wrong reasoning of the religious precepts to the mujtahid; hence the word taqlid (derived from qallāda which means collar) is used here.
 

The Necessity of Taqlīd
Question no. 2: Why should we emulate a mujtahid? What is its philosophy?
The inquiring mind of every Muslim is seeking the philosophy of the Islamic precepts. The importance of knowing the philosophy of taqlid is much more than that of any other religious precept. This is because in Islamic law, there are obligations and inviolable things legislated by God Almighty for the man’s felicity in this world and the hereafter. If the man does not obey these rules, he would neither achieve the desired felicity nor would he be immune from the punishments therein.
To know the religious precepts, a lot of information – such as understanding the Quranic verses and Islamic traditions, distinguishing the valid and invalid traditions, the way different traditions and Quranic verses are reconciled, etc. – is necessary, which require long years of effort to be acquired.
In such a situation, the religiously competent person (called mokallaf) would have three options to choose from:
a) First, he may attempt to acquire the knowledge of jurisprudence (ijtihad);
b) Second, he may study all the existing opinions before any action to act in a way which is acceptable according to all religious experts’ opinions (taking a precautionary measure or ihtiyāt);
c) Third, he may make use of the opinions of those who have completely acquired the necessary knowledge and are experts in recognizing the religious precepts.
Undoubtedly, if he goes the first way and becomes a religious expert (mujtahid), he would be self-contained, not needing to refer to the other two choices. However, as long as he has not acquired the necessary knowledge of ijtihad, he would unavoidably need to refer to one of the other two choices.
The second choice requires enough information on the existing opinions in every issue and the methods of precautionary measure. In many cases, due to the difficulty of these measures, his normal life would be disordered. Thus, the third choice, i.e. taqlid, is inescapable for most people. These three choices are not just limited to the way a man would behave in religious matters; rather, this is the case in any other disciplines. Consider an engineer, for instance, who gets sick. To cure his illness, he may either acquire the necessary medical knowledge, or study all the physicians’ opinions therein to act properly. Otherwise, he must refer to an expert physician.
Through the first way, he would not achieve a healthy state soon. The second way is much more difficult and would impede him from dealing with his main profession. Therefore, he would get help from an expert physician, and would act according to that expert’s opinion. In doing so, he would not only be safe from future penitence and his friends’ blames, but also be cured in most cases.
 

Hearing a Mujtahid’s Fatwa
Question no. 3: Is hearing and seeing a mujtahid’s expert opinion (fatwa) through mass media (telephone, radio, internet, ...) binding for the religiously competent person?
- If the source is reliable, the fatwa would be binding.3
 

Question no. 4: How can one identify the most knowledgeable (a’lam) mujtahid?
- The most knowledgeable mujtahid can be identified through the following three ways:
a) The person himself is certain, e.g. he is one of those working in the field of religious knowledge;
b) The mujtahid is declared to be the most knowledgeable one by two just knowledgeable person who can recognize this fact (provided that their assertion is not opposed by two other just knowledgeable persons);
c) This fact is proved by the assertion made by a group of knowledgeable persons who can identify the most knowledgeable one.4
NOTE: According to Ayatollah Sīstānī, even if only one skilled scholar – who is trustable – asserts this, it would suffice.
 

Question no. 5: Is preference in religious emulation permitted? In other words, can one act according to a mujtahid’s decrees in some affairs and to another mujtahid’s decrees in others?
- Preference in emulation is permitted if two or more mujtahids are equal. For example, one may follow one mujtahid in religious precepts on prayer and fasting, another mujtahid in precepts on khoms (one-fifth religious tax) and still another mujtahid in precepts on marriage. However, in the affairs related to one another – if their decrees lead to the action’s being invalid or definitely opposed – preference is not permitted. For example, one cannot act according to one mujtahid’s decrees in precepts on impurity of body and dress, and according to another mujtahid’s decrees in precepts on the prayer’s dress.5
 

Referring to an Equal Religious Authority
Question no. 6: Can we leave our ‘religious authority’ (marja’) to refer to another living one? For example, as to the precepts on a travelling student’s prayers and fasting, can one refer to another mujtahid equal to his own legal authority?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the two religious authorities are equal in knowledge and piety, one may do so just in the affairs not related to one another; for example, one cannot refer in precepts on traveler’s fasting but not in precepts on traveler’s prayers.
-Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Based on the ihtiyāt wājeb (‘obligatory precaution’), it is not permitted to refer to an equal mujtahid.
 

The Meaning of Ihtiyāt (‘precaution’)
Question no. 7: Explain obligatory and recommended precautions.
If the legal authority had no fatwa in an affair, having declared an obligatory precaution therein, the moqalled (emulator, follower) cannot ignore it. He may either act according to the precaution, or refer – observing the principle of “al-A’lam fal-A’lam”6 – to another legal authority. But if the legal authority has declared a recommended precaution, it is permitted to give up the action in question, though doing it will be rewarded by Allah.7
 

A Legal Authority’s Obligatory Precaution
Question no. 8: If our legal authority declares an obligatory precaution in an affair and we act according to it, can we refer to another mujtahid who is more knowledgeable than him?
Yes, you can refer to him.8
NOTE: If one has ignorantly acted contrary to the obligatory precaution declared by his own religious authority but his action is according to another authority’s fatwa, his action is right.
 

Keeping on Emulation
Question no. 9: I was emulating one of the religious authorities; after he had passed away, I kept on doing so without referring to another living authority. What is my religious duty now?
First, you must refer to a living authority who is the most knowledgeable one, then, act according to his opinion in keeping on emulating a dead authority.9
 

Unblamable Ignorant and Blamable Ignorant
Question no. 10: Who is an unblamable ignorant (jāhel-e qāser) and a blamable ignorant (jāhel-e moqasser)?
The ‘blamable ignorant’ is someone who has not intentionally refrained from acquiring the knowledge; that is, he has been in a condition with no access to the divine decree; or he does not regard himself ignorant, therefore not considering his religious practices invalid.
The ‘blamable ignorant’ is someone who has intentionally refrained from acquiring the knowledge; that is, he has had the possibility to learn divine decree, but has failed to do so.
The unblamable ignorant would not be, in some cases, punished by God, but the blamable ignorant deserves the punishment.10
****
Religious Precepts on Minor Ablution (Wuzū)
Question no. 11: Is there any Quranic verse concerning minor ablution? What are the meaning and the benefit of the minor ablution?
‘O, you who believe! When you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles...’ (The Quran, Mā’eda [5], 6)
Literally speaking, wuzū means cleaning, and in jurisprudence, it refers to “a special washing which can be done in two ways: Tartībī and Irtemāsī.”
In tartībī form, the wuzū is done as follows: intending nearness (qorbat or taqarrob) to God and obeying His command, we first wash our face, then the right hand and the left hand respectively; then with the same wet right hand, we wipe the front part of our head, and top of our right foot and left foot respectively.
The irtemāsī form of wuzū is done as follows: rinsing the face in water, then rinsing the hands in water from top to down with the intention (niyyat) to perform ablution.
One may integrate these two methods. In other words, he may wash his face in irtemāsī form and his hands in tartībī form. This is also right. Furthermore, we must know that wuzū is obligatory for some practices and recommended for others.
Wuzū has two clear benefits: hygienic and spiritual. From hygienic viewpoint, washing one’s face and hands – three or five times a day – has a considerable effect on cleanness of the body. Wiping the head and the feet makes us keep these parts clean as well. The water, when contacting the body skin, has a specially balancing effect on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve system. From spiritual viewpoint, wuzū – since it is done with an intention to be near to God and making Him pleased – has an educative and moral effect. This is because the esoteric meaning of wuzū is as follows: “I’m obeying You from head to foot.”11
 

Washing in Wuzū (Minor Ablution)
Question 12: What does ‘washing once’ in minor ablution mean?
- The criterion for determining ‘washing once’ is the person’s intention. Therefore, if he pours ten handfuls of water intending the first time, there would be no problem, and all are accepted as the first time.12
 

Question no. 13: When performing my ablution, I move my hand over the other hand several times so that I am certain the water has reached all parts; is there any problem with this?
- If this does not amount to obsession, there would be no problem with it.13
 

Question no. 14: In performing ablution, how many times are we permitted to wash our face and hands?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: The first time is obligatory; the second is permitted, and more than that is illicit.14
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: The first time is obligatory; the second time is recommended, and more than that is illicit.15
 

Wiping the Head
Question no. 15: How can someone with long hair in front part of the head wipe his head in ablution?
- Either he/ she must wipe the root of the hair or opens up the crown of the head to wipe the skin.16
 

Wiping the Toe
Question no. 16: Is it necessary to make the wiping of the foot on the big toe?
- It is not necessary to wipe the big toe, and wiping any of the other toes is enough.17
 

Hair Color
Question no. 17: Are the hair color or henna or the color of fruit skins an obstacle for ablution?
- The color without the substance itself is no obstacle.18
 

Obstacles for Ablution
Question no. 18: If we notice obstacles in body members after we have performed our ablution, what must we do?
- If you do not know whether it had been there while performing the ablution or not, your ablution is ok; but if you did not notice the obstacle while performing your ablution, based on the obligatory precaution, you should repeat your ablution.19
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If you do not know whether it had been there while performing the ablution or not, your ablution is ok; but if you did not notice the obstacle while performing your ablution, based on the recommended precaution, you should repeat your ablution.20
 

Eyebrow Pencil
Question no. 19: What should someone who has applied eyebrow pencil or mascara do for performing ablution?
- If the eyebrow pencil or mascara has substance, it must be removed before ablution; however, it is not necessary to remove what is inside the eye.21
NOTE: after one has removed the substance of the cosmetics, the remaining color is not an obstacle for ablution.
 

The Dirt under the Nail
Question no. 20: If there is some dirt under one’s nail that is an obstacle for the ablution, is the ablution right?
- If the dirt is not apparent, the ablution is right.22
 

The Ink of the Pen
Question no. 21: Is the color of the pen’s ink an obstacle for ablution?
- If it has substance, it is an obstacle and must be removed.23
 

Skin Cream
Question no. 22: Does rubbing cream on the hands and face make an obstacle for the ablution?
- To the extent that it is no obstacle for water to reach the skin, there is no problem.24
NOTE: It is due to common sense to recognize this.
 

Hair Gel
Question no. 23: Is it right to wipe the oiled hair in ablution?
- To the extent that the oil does not make an obstacle – while wiping the head – for the water to reach the head skin or the hair, there is no problem.25
 

Faucet for Ablution
Question no. 24: Is it right to turn off the faucet while performing one’s ablution?
- There is no problem with that.26
NOTE: If, after pouring water on the face and hands for ablution, we first turn of the faucet and then complete the ablution for each body member, then 1) we have prevented wasting water, and 2) there would be no problem with the wiping for ablution.
 

Doubt in Ablution
Question no. 25: Many times, I am in doubt while performing my ablution; what is my duty?
- You should not pay attention to your doubts [and act as the ordinary people].27
 

Question no. 26: If someone is in doubt whether he has performed ablution, should he perform ablution for prayer?
- Yes, he must do it.28
 

Doubt after the Prayer
Question no. 27: If someone, having said his prayer, is in doubt whether he had performed his ablution before the prayer, what is his duty?
- The prayer he has said is right, but he must perform another ablution for next prayers.29
 

Ablution before the ‘Call to Prayer’ (‘Adhān’)
Question no. 28: Can one perform his ablution for prayer before the call to prayer?
- If he performs the ablution with the intention to be religiously pure or to do recommended things such as reciting the Quran or mentioning recommended religious formula (dhekr), he may then say his prayer with the same ablution.30
 

Walking While Performing Ablution
Question no. 29: Does walking while wiping [head or foot] invalidate one’s ablution?
- There is no problem with walking while wiping.31
 

Eating while Performing Ablution
Question no. 30: Does eating while performing ablution invalidate it?
- There is no problem with eating while performing one’s ablution; however, it is advisable not to do anything disturbing one’s ‘Presence of the Heart’.32
 

Sleeping after Having Performed one’s Ablution
Question no. 31: To what extent does sleeping invalidate ablution?
- If the eye does not see and the ear does not hear, such a sleeping invalidates ablution; but if just one of these two occurs, there is no problem for ablution.33
 

Jabīra Ablution
Question no. 32: How should someone with bandage or plaster-cast on his hand perform his ablution?
- He must perform a jabīra ablution.34
NOTE: Jabīra means the bandage and ointment applied to a wounded or broken body member. The Jabīra ablution is performed as follows (e.g. for a person with a bandaged right hand): first, he must wash his face (with the left hand, putting it under the faucet, or sinking it in water); then he must perform a jabīra ablution for the right hand (wipe the bandage or plaster-cast with a wet hand); he, then, must wash the left hand just like the right one. In the end, he must wipe the head and feet with the same wet hand.
****
Religious Precepts on Major Ablution (Ghusl)
Importance of Major Ablution
Question no. 33: Explain ‘major ablution’ and its importance.
- Pay attention to the following Quranic verse:
“If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body.” (The Quran, Mā’eda [5], 6.)
Literally speaking, ghusl means washing something to remove its dirt; and in jurisprudence, it means “washing the whole body with the intention to approximate God and obey the divine command”. There are two kinds of ghusl: obligatory and recommended.
The obligatory ghusls are as follows: jenābat (ritual impurity), heyz (menstruation), nefās (mother’s bleeding after childbirth), istehāza (women’s irregular bleeding other than menstruation), mass-e mayyet (touching a dead body), mayyet (dead body), and the ghusl having become obligatory because of vow, oath, etc.
The recommended ghusls are numerous, which have been mentioned in related books in detail.
Among the obligatory ghusls, the most important one is that for ritual impurity (jenābat); it is not obligatory by itself, but it becomes obligatory for doing some religious practices (e.g. saying one’s prayer, touching the Quran, ...). In fact, it is sinful to do such things without having performed the jenaābat ghusl. Furthermore, in some cases, the action would be invalid without this ghusl.
The jenābat ghusl has two important benefits and philosophies:
a) The science says there are two types of nerve system in human body, i.e. sympathetic and parasympathetic. These are dispersed all over the body. The sympathetic nerve system speeds up the functions of the organs and the parasympathetic system speeds them down. Sometimes, there happens something that disturbs the equilibrium therein. Among the events that do so is the orgasm occurring just before the ejaculation. Pouring water on the body may ignite the sympathetic system to recover the missing equilibrium, hence the religious precept ordering that the whole body must be washed after the intercourse or the ejaculation.
b) The jenābat ghusl is an Islamic precept for making the body clean and healthy. There are some individuals who may forget to wash themselves regularly; this precept, however, reminds them of observing their sanitation. The abovementioned reasons are just mentioned as the philosophies behind this kind of ghusl and are by no means the real criterion for its being obligatory, because ghusl is a devotional obligation needing the intention of proximity to God. Thus, someone who has just washed himself but has experienced ejaculation, he must anyway perform the major ablution.35
The major ablution can be performed in two ways: Tartībī and Irtemāsī.
In tartībī major ablution, we first wash the head and the neck, then the right half of the body, and the left half respectively.36
In irtemāsī type, the whole body is sunk in the water together (such as performing the major ablution in a pool). In both methods, there is no need to wipe the body parts with the hands. It is enough to make the water wet all the body parts. All the conditions for the minor ablution to be correct are applicable for the major ablution as well. However, there are some points of difference:
1. There is no need to maintain the succession of actions in major ablution;
2. There is no need to wash the body from top to down in major ablution;
3. In major ablution, the water must wet the skin, but in minor ablution, there is no need to do so if the hair is too long;
NOTE: there is no difference between the obligatory and recommended types of major ablution as regards the methods of performing them.
 

Multipurpose Major Ablution
Question no. 34: Can someone who has to perform major ablutions for several reasons perform just one with the intention to do all?
- Yes, he can.37
 

Invalidators of the Major Ablution
Question no. 35: Are urinating or farting invalidators of major ablution?
- No, they do not invalidate major ablution; however, they cause performing minor ablution (wuzū) to be necessary for prayers.
 

Farting While Performing Ablution
Question no. 36: If one experiences minor impurities (e.g. urination, farting,...) during major ablution, is his major ablution right?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: The major ablution is not invalidated and must be completed; however, it is better (recommended precaution) to repeat it with the intention to do what is his duty (whether it is completion or repetition). In any case, he must perform a minor ablution for prayer or any religious practice needing minor ablution.38
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: The major ablution is not invalidated, but based on an obligatory precaution, the person must perform a minor ablution for prayer or any religious practice needing minor ablution.39
 

Long Hair in Major Ablution
Question no. 37: Is it necessary to wash long hair in major ablution?
- No, it is not necessary to wash long hair.40
 

Doubt in Major Ablution
Question 38: If someone, having finished his major ablution, is in doubt as to the rightness of his major ablution, what must he do?
- The major ablution is ok.41
 

Oblivion in Major Ablution
Question no. 39: If someone, having finished his major ablution, notes that some parts of his body is not washed, what must he do?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it is a part of the left side of his body, it would be enough to wash just that part; if it is from the right side, then he must wash the left side after washing that part. If the part is from the head or the neck, he must wash, having washed that part, wash the right and the left parts again as well.42
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it is a part of the left side of his body, it would be enough to wash just that part; if it is from the right side, it is a recommended precaution for him to wash the left side after washing the right side. If the part is from the head or the neck, it is obligatory precaution for him to wash the body again after washing that part.43
****
Religious Precepts on ‘Ritual Impurity’ (Jenābat)
Question no. 40: What are the ways to identify one as being ritually impure?
- Two things cause ritual impurity:
a) Sexual intercourse to the extent of entering the penis up to the circumcision line [even if the ejaculation does not occur].
b) Ejaculation, whether it is in sleep or wakefulness, whether the semen is little or much, whether it is libidinous or not, intentional or not.44
 

Question no. 41: Explain about mazy, wazy, and wady.
- “mazy” is a liquid that sometimes comes out while lovemaking.
- “wazy” is a liquid that sometimes comes out after the semen.
- “wady” is a liquid that sometimes comes out after urination, and is a bit sticky and white.
If the urine channel does not become impure by urine or semen, it is ritually pure.45
NOTE: The benefit of istebrā (purification) after urination is that if a doubtful liquid is released after it, it would be pure and would not invalidate the minor ablution. But if the person has not performed istebrā, he must repeat the minor ablution and wash the impure point.
The benefit of istebrā after ejaculation is that if a doubtful liquid is released, and the person does not know whether it is semen or one of the pure liquids, there is no need to perform major ablution. But if he does not perform istebrā and it is probable that some particles of semen has remained in the urine channel and has been released along with the urine or some other liquid, he must repeat performing the major ablution.
 

Identifying Semen
Question no. 42: How can semen and ‘nocturnal pollution’ (ihtelām) be identified in men?
- Semen emission has three signs in men: (a) it is accompanied by sexual pleasure, (b) it is emitted with a leap, and (c) it is lethargic. It would not be identified as semen if it lacks even one of these signs, unless its being semen is proved in another way.46
 

Women’s Ritual Impurity (jenābat)
Question no. 43: How can semen and ‘nocturnal pollution’ (ihtelām) be identified in women?
- If the women’s emissions are accompanied by highest sexual pleasure (orgasm), they would be ritually impure. It is not necessary for their emission to be in leaping form or be lethargic. However, if it is without sexual pleasure, it would not be identified as semen unless it is identified as so in another way.47
 

Purity of Women’s Exudations
Question no. 44: Are the exudations from women’s sexual organ ritually pure?
- These exudations are pure and do not make a major ablution necessary unless it is certain that they are urine or semen.48
 

Intention of Ghusl-e Jenābat (‘Major Ablution for Ritual Impurity’)
Question no. 45: I went to bath with the intention to perform major ablution for ritual impurity; however, when I came out, I was in doubt whether I had done it or not. What should I do?
- You should consider this as not having performed the major ablution, and perform it with the related intention.49
 

The Time for Ghusl-e Jenaābat
Question no. 46: Does the major ablution for ritual impurity become immediately obligatory?
- No, this kind of major ablution becomes obligatory just for saying prayer and those practices that necessitate ritual purity.50
 

Major Ablution before the Prayer’s Time
Question no. 47: Can one perform the major ablution before the prayer’s time?
- It is enough to perform it with the intention of proximity to God and being pure, and he may say his prayer with the same major ablution.51
 

Dry Ablution (Tayammom) and Intentional Ritual Impurity
Question no. 48: If someone cannot perform major ablution, but it is possible for him to perform dry ablution, can he have an intercourse with his wife and say his prayer with a dry ablution?
- Yes, he can do so, whether it is before the prayer’s time or after it.52
 

Doubt as to the Semen
Question no. 49: If a liquid is emitted from the person, which he does not know what it is, what should he do?
- If the liquid has the signs of the semen, he must perform major ablution; but if he is not certain, there is no need to perform it.53
****
Religious Precepts on ‘Masturbation’ (Istemnā’)
Definition of Istemnā’

Question no. 50: What is istemnā’?
- “Istemnā’” is when someone does something with himself or with someone else to ejaculate. This is religiously illicit and, if the semen is emitted, the major ablution for ritual impurity is obligatory.
 

Illicitness of Sexual Self-Satisfaction
Question no. 51: Is sexual self-satisfaction, if it does not amount to ejaculation, religiously illicit?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Yes, it is illicit, but no major ablution is necessary.54
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is illicit based on obligatory precaution, but no major ablution is necessary.55
 

Illicitness of Masturbation
Question no. 52: Is it permitted for someone who cannot marry and is under pressure by the sexual desire to masturbate?
- No, masturbation is not permitted in any condition.56
 

Masturbation and Laboratory
Question no. 53: Can someone masturbate to have a medical laboratory test his semen so that they may diagnose his potentiality for becoming a father?
- No, this is not permitted unless there is a necessity.57
NOTE: In cases where there is a necessity to masturbate, if the person has a wife, it is obligatory for him to have his wife do the task.
 

Atonement for Masturbation
Question no. 54: Is there any atonement for masturbation? If yes, what is it?
- No, there is no atonement for it; however, it is necessary for the person to give up this and repent for it.58
 

Question no. 55: Can one do the masturbation for her husband with the intention to make him ejaculate?
- Yes, it is permitted to do the masturbation thereby.59
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Religious Precepts for Tayammom (Dry Ablution)
Importance of Tayammom

Question no. 56: Explain about the reason and benefit of dry ablution.
- The Quran says:
‘[if] you find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands.’ (The Quran, Nesā [4], 43.)
Literally, tayammom means ‘intention’ and ‘will’, and in jurisprudence, it refers to a ‘practice substituting major and minor ablution in particular circumstances’.
Tayammom (dry ablution) is performed as follows:
First, we hit our hand palms against something permitted for dry ablution. Then we rub both hand palms on our forehead and the two sides of the face from where the hair grows up to the eyebrows and the top of the nose. Then we rub our right hand palm on the whole back of the left hand – from the wrist up to the fingertips – and do the same thing with the left hand for the right hand.60
Dry ablution has two important benefits and philosophies:
a) Sanitary benefit: soil, for its being full of bacteria, can remove the pollution. There is a plenty of bacteria on the ground surface where the earth is affected by air and sunlight. Therefore, soil can substitute water in this respect. The difference is that water is a solvent; in other words, it removes the pollutions by resolving them in itself; but the soil kills the germs. This is true just for a clean soil. So it is called ‘tayyeb’ (i.e. clean) by the Quran.
b) Moral benefit: dry ablution is one of the ritual practices. Here, the man rubs his dusty hands on his forehead – which is his noblest part of the body – to show his humbleness before God Almighty. Then he would go for the prayer and other devotional practices needing ablution. Thus, dry ablution is effective in fostering the spirit of servitude and humbleness before God.61
Someone who is obliged to perform dry ablution, as long as the problem with finding water is there, can do all things needing minor or major ablution just with dry ablution. The invalidators of minor or major ablutions are invalidators of dry ablution as well. It is noteworthy that one may perform his dry ablution just on the earth and all things deserving this title (soil, sand, clod, marble, and various kinds of stone).
 

Ritual Impurity and Being a Guest
Question no. 57: If a guest becomes ritually impure (jonob), can he perform, due to shyness, dry ablution instead of major ablution?
- Shyness is no justification for dry ablution, and the person must perform major ablution instead.62
NOTE: He may wait until the time is nearly finished for saying prayer; in this case, though he has committed a sin, he can then rightly perform the dry ablution. And he may clean his body and clothes to say his prayer.
 

Dry Ablution instead of Minor Ablution
Question no. 58: Is there any difference between the ‘dry ablution instead of minor ablution’ and the ‘dry ablution instead of major ablution’? If yes, explain both of them.
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: The method in both cases are the same; however, it is better, in both cases, to hit the hand on the soil once more after wiping the face and hands, and wipe the right and the left hand respectively.63
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: The method in both cases are the same; however, it is obligatory precaution, in both cases, to hit the hand on the soil once more after wiping the face and hands, and wipe the right and the left hand respectively.64
 

Dry Ablution Instead of Major Ablution
Question no. 59: Is it necessary to perform a ‘dry ablution instead of minor ablution’ after having performed a ‘dry ablution instead of major ablution’?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: in the ‘dry ablution instead of major ablution for jenābat’, it is not necessary to perform a ‘dry ablution instead of minor ablution’ for saying one’s prayer. But in the dry ablution instead of other major ablutions, it is necessary to perform minor ablution or dry ablution instead of minor ablution for saying one’s prayer.65
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: No, it is not necessary for him to perform minor ablution or dry ablution instead of minor ablution for saying his prayer (whether it is minor ablution for jenābat or for other reasons), except major ablution for istehāza motawasseta (i.e. women’s moderate irregular bleeding). However, it is better (recommended precaution) to perform it.66
 

The Time of Dry Ablution
Question no. 60: If someone is in doubt as to whether there is enough time to perform major ablution and say his prayer in its appropriate time span, what must he do?
- In this case, he must perform dry ablution.67
 

Saying One’s Prayer with Dry Ablution
Question no. 61: Must one repeat saying his prayers after his religious excuse has been resolved?
- No, it is not necessary to do so.68
 

Question no. 62: Can one who has performed ‘dry ablution instead of major ablution for jenābat’ say his next prayers with the same dry ablution as well?
- Yes, as long as the dry ablution and the excuse for it exist, he can say his next prayers with the same dry ablution.69
 

Question no. 63: Is it necessary condition for the place of dry ablution to have dust in place?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: No, but it is recommended to have some dust in place.70
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is obligatory precaution to have some dust in place as far as possible.71
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Religious Precepts on Sacred Names
Divine Names

Question no. 64: What is the religious precept on touching the Divine Names without minor ablution?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is not permitted to touch the Divine Names without minor ablution, no matter in which language they are written.72
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is not permitted, based on obligatory precaution, to touch the Divine Names without minor ablution, no matter in which language they are written.73
 

Names of the Infallible
Question no. 65: What is the religious precept on touching the name of the Prophet, the names of the Imams and her majesty Fatima, without minor ablution?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is obligatory precaution not to touch those names without minor ablution.74
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is better (recommended precaution) no to touch those names without minor ablution.75
 

Question no. 66: Is one permitted to use an agate with sacred named carved on it as a necklace while one goes to the toilet?
- If it is not considered desecration, there is no problem with it.76
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Religious Precepts on Daily Prayers
Importance of Daily Prayer

Question no. 67: Explain the religious necessity and the benefit of daily prayer?
“...keep up prayer for my remembrance.” (The Quran, Tāhā [20], 14)
Prayer has not been ordered just in Islam; rather, it has been present in earlier religions in various forms. The Holy Quran has referred to prayer as one of the recommendations made by some of the prophets,77and Imam Sādeq has referred to it as one of the last and the most important recommendations made by prophets.78
Prayer is the pillar of Islam and the most valuable worship; if it is accepted by God, the other devotional practices are also accepted; and if it is rejected, all other actions would be worthless. Therefore, it is one of the greatest sins to give up saying prayer. The Holy Prophet says: “One who pays little attention to prayer and regards it trifling, deserves the punishment in the hereafter.”
The followings are among the effects and blessings resulted from prayer:
1. Revival of God’s remembrance in the individuals and the society (Keep up the prayer for My remembrance79);
2. Acquiring internal peace (“...now surely by Allah's remembrance are the hearts set at rest.”80)
3. The best factor preventing individuals from vices and wrong deeds (“...surely prayer keeps (one) away from indecency and evil”81)
4. The best means to achieve piety and virtuousness (“O men! Serve your Lord Who created you and those before you so that you may guard (against evil).”82)
Prayer has eleven obligatory elements: niyyat, takbīrat al-ihrām, qiyām (standing up while saying one’s takbīrat al-ihrām and the upstanding adjoining the rukū’), rokū’, sojūd, qarā’at, zekr, tashahhod, salām, tartīb, mowālāt. Some of these elements (the first five ones) are the rokns (pillars) of the prayer; that is, if one does not perform them or adds to the required number – whether it is intentionally or unintentionally – the prayer is invalidated. The rest, if they are deleted or added unintentionally (through oblivion or mistake), would not cause the prayer to be invalidated. Observing some other points would also lead to the ‘presence of heart’, causing the prayer more acceptable to God. These are:
1. Not closing one’s eyes while saying one’s prayer;
2. Not playing with one’s fingers, hair, ...;
3. Not pausing, while reciting the verses, to listen to others;
4. Avoiding anything that hinders one’s attention and humbleness.
There are some invalidators to the prayer such as laughing (but not smiling), crying for worldly affairs, turning away from the kiblah, eating and drinking, disturbing the prayers’ form, and reducing or adding to the prayer’s pillars (rokns).
 

Veiling in Prayer
Question no. 68: If a woman, while saying her prayer, notices her hair is out of the veil, what should she do? If she notices this after the prayer, is her prayer ok?
- If she notices this while saying her prayer, she must immediately cover her hair and her prayer is ok, providing that this covering is not taking a long time; but if she notices this after the prayer, her prayer is ok.83
 

Ritually Impure Dress
Question no. 69: If I noticed the impurity of my clothes or my body after the prayer, what should I do?
- If you noticed this after the prayer, your prayer is ok.84
 

Forgetting the Impurity of One’s Clothes
Question no. 70: If someone has forgotten his clothes’ being ritually impure and has said his prayer, is it necessary for him to repeat it as a belated obligation?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: He must repeat the prayer, and if the due time for that prayer has passed, he must say it as a belated (qazā) obligation.85
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If he has forgotten it as a result of negligence, he must repeat it based on obligatory precaution; and if the due time has passed, he must say it as a belated obligation. Otherwise, it is not necessary to repeat the prayer.86
 

Bowing in Prayer
Question no. 71: Must the hands be place on the knee or above it during the bowing position (rokū’) in prayer?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is necessary for the person to bend to the extent that he can place his fingertips on his knees; but it is not necessary to place the hands on the knees.87
 

Impurity of the Carpet
Question no. 72: If the carpet is ritually impure, can we say our prayer on it?
- If the impure carpet is dry and does not make one’s clothes wet, there is no problem with saying one’s prayer on it.88
 

The Impurity of the Mohr89
Question no. 73: If the mohr or the place of prostrating is ritually impure, is the prayer ok?
- No, the mohr and the place of prostrating must be pure, even if it is dry.90
 

Obstacles of Prostration
Question no. 74: If something like a piece of one’s clothes or hair becomes an obstacle for prostration, what should we do?
- The obstacle must be removed before saying the formulation, provided that the forehead is not lifted; however, if the forehead contacts the mohr to the extent that is necessary for the prostration, it is not necessary to remove the obstacle.91
 

Repeating the Prostration
Question no. 75: If the forehead, while prostrating, is placed on the mohr twice, what should we do?
- If the second time is unintentional, both times are considered as one prostration.92
 

The Four Praises
Question no. 76: Can one say Tasbīhāt Arba’a (the Four Praises)93 in prayer more than or less than the required numbers?
- It is enough for the prayer to say the Four Praises just once; however, it is better to say them three times. And there is no problem with saying them more with the intention to say some zikrs (i.e. recommended formulations).94
 

Salutations in the Prayer
Question no.77: Is it enough to say just the formula “as-Salāmo ‘alaykom wa rahmatollāh-e wa barakātoh” as the final salutation in the prayer?
- Yes, it is enough; however, it is better to say the previous two salutations as well.95
 

The Women’s Prayer
Question no. 78: Is it necessary for the women to stand behind men while saying their prayer?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Based on the obligatory precaution, there must be at least one span gap between them; in this way, even if the woman is standing in front of the man, the prayer is ok.96
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Based on the necessary precaution, the woman must stand behind the man; and here, there is no difference between mahārem (one’s close and congenial relatives) and others.97
 

Moving in Prayer
Question no. 79: If someone is barged into while reciting the chapter Hamd in prayer, and he is unintentionally moved a little, is his prayer ok?
- If he is not made out of the prayer state, the prayer is ok, and he must repeat – based on the obligatory precaution – the zekr (formula) said in the moving state.
NOTE: according to Ayatollah Sīstānī, repeating the zekr is a recommended precaution.
 

Prayer on an Airplane
Question no. 80: Is it right for one to say his prayer on a flying airplane or a moving train?
- The prayer’s place must be motionless. However, if one, due to the limited time or some other necessity, is obliged to say his prayer on a moving train or airplane, he must observe stillness and remaining in the direction of Mecca (kiblah) as far as possible. And he must not say anything while turning to kiblah direction.98
 

Eating in Prayer
Question no. 81: Does swallowing the particles of food remained between one’s teeth, while saying prayer, invalidate the prayer?
- Swallowing the food particles between the teeth would not invalidate the prayer; besides, if the some blocks of sugar remained in the mouth is gradually solved during the prayer, there is no problem with the prayer.99
 

Doubt in Prayer
Question no. 82: Explain the ‘doubt after the due point’ with an example.
- The doubt after the due point is when someone – while reciting the sūra, for example – is in doubt whether he has recited the Hamd or not; in rokū’ (bowing position) is in doubt whether he has recited the sūra or not; in sajda (prostration) is in doubt whether he has done the rokū’ or not; after the salām (final salute) is in doubt whether he has said the formula for tashahhod or not, and so on. In all these cases, he must not take heed of his doubt, and must go on saying his prayer, which is right then.100
 

Kathīr al-Shakk
Question no. 83: What must they who are much in doubt in prayer do?
- Kathīr al-Shakk is a person who cannot say three successive prayers without doubt; in this case, he must not take heed of his doubt, and must take the choice which he favors most. For example, if he is in doubt between 2 and 3 rak’as, while saying his morning prayer, he must assume that he has said two rak’as; and if he is in doubt as to performing the sajda and the rokū’, he must assume that he has performed it.101
 

The Qazā (Delayed) Prayer
Question no. 84: Can someone with delayed prayer or fasting say a recommended prayer or have recommended fasting?
- He can say recommended prayer, but cannot have recommended fasting.102
 

Question no. 85: Can we say our delayed prayer with a congregational prayer?
- Yes, there is no problem with this, and it is not necessary to say the same prayer as the imam (prayer leader); rather, we may say the morning prayer with an imam saying the noon or evening prayer.103
 

Imitation (Iqtedā) in Congregational Prayer
Question no. 86: After the prayer leader says his Takbīrat al-Ihrām, those in the first line have not said their Takbīrat al-Ihrām yet; how is the prayer of those saying their Takbīrat al-Ihrām in the other lines?
- If the first lines are ready to say their Takbīrat al-Ihrām, those in next lines can say their Takbīrat al-Ihrām and enter the prayer.104
 

Hired Prayer
Question no. 87: Can I hire someone, or take help from my friends, to say those prayers I have not said before?
- No person, as long as he is alive, can hire or take help from others to say his delayed prayers or have his delayed fasts; rather, it is obligatory for him to perform them by himself in any way he can.105
 

Recommended Prayers
Question no. 88: Can one say a recommended prayer in motion? Is it necessary to observe the kiblah direction in recommended prayers?
- One may say the recommended prayer in motion, and it is not necessary for one who is walking or is on ride to observe the kiblah direction.106
 

Friday Prayer
Question no. 89: Is the Friday Prayer obligatory or recommended? Can it replace the noon prayer?
- In the Occultation Period, the Friday Prayer is an ‘optional obligation’ (one that can be chosen among several obligations), and it is better to participate in this prayer. For the one who says the Friday Prayer, there is no need to say the noon prayer, but it is a precaution to say both of them.107
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Religious Precepts on Prayer and Fasting by University Educators and Students
Fasting of University Educators and Students

Question no. 90: What must the university educators and students do for their prayers and fasting if they stay in the city where they study or in their dormitory less than 10 days?
- Ayatollah SĪstānī: a) those who travel at least 3 days a week or 10 days a month (even if not continuously), and this goes on for a period of time (e.g. 6 months a year, or at least 3 months in a few educational years), they are considered Kathīr al-Safar (i.e. poly-travelling), and must say their prayers completely and must fast both in their study place and when on road. b) those who stay in their study place or dormitory 3 years or more, and at least 15 days a month or 6 months a year (even if non-continuously), it is considered as their hometown, their prayers being complete and their fasts being right (not on road, however).
NOTE 1: In both cases, if – in the first week – he does not set his mind to stay 10 days, he must observe precaution; i.e. he must say his prayer both in complete and shortened form, and fast both in due time and as a delayed fasting.
NOTE 2: Considering the fact that Ayatollah Sīstānī permits his own imitators to refer to another religious authority in equal rank, they may refer to some other authority who permits them to say a complete prayer and fast in due time only.
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Those university educators and students with fellowship, who travel between their hometown and the university at least once in less than 10 days, must fast and say complete prayers; but other students have to say shortened prayers and cannot fast.
NOTE: Considering the fact that Ayatollah Khāmena’ī proclaims an obligatory precaution as to referring to another authority with an equal rank, the students may refer to another authority in this issue, providing that the new authority permits referring to an equal authority, allowing for a complete prayer and fasting for travelling student.
 

Question no. 91: What must the university educators and students, if stayed in their teaching or study place for more than 10 days with an intention to do so, do as to their prayers and fasts?
- For such persons, the prayer is complete and their fasting is ok.108
NOTE: If they, from the beginning, certainly intend to stay 10 days but after saying a four rak’as prayer decide to return to their hometown for some reason, their complete prayer and fasts in the study place are ok.
 

Question no. 92: How is the prayer and fasting for those university students who stay in the dormitory 10 days or more, travelling between there and their hometown, while the distance is less than the legal four farsakhs (22.5 km.)?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If in the period of 10 days, they go about 1-2 hours a day (or a few days, totally amounting to one third of the day or night) from the dormitory to the university, the prayer is complete and the fasting is right; otherwise, the prayer is shortened and they cannot fast.109
 

Question no. 93: If a university educator or student travels incidentally to a city other than his hometown, what must he do for his prayers and fasts?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: The prayer is complete and the fasting is right.110
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: The prayer is shortened and the fasting is not right.111
 

Question no. 94: How are the prayer and fasting for those university educators and students who travel between their hometown and their study place one day or more in a week (with a distance more than the legal distance) in the two following situations: (a) the teaching or study is just in one city; (b) the teaching or study places are in several cities?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If they are on travel 10 days or more per month and this is done for 6 months per year or for 3 months in a few years, the prayer is complete and the fasting is right. If they are on travel for 8-9 days per month, they must observe precaution; that is, they must say their prayers both completely and in a shortened form, and fast both in due time and as a delayed one later.112
 

The First Trip
Question no. 95: How are the prayers and fasts of a travelling student in the first trip?
- Ayatollah Khāmena'ī: The university students and educators with fellowship must say shortened prayers in their first and second trip, and must not fast; from the third trip on, however, they must say complete prayers and their fasting is right.
Ayatollah Sīstānī: They must observe precaution in the first two weeks of their trip. (The imitators may refer to another religious authority here.)
 

Religious Legal Distance
Question no. 96: How much is the religious legal distance?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is about 22.5 kms.113
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Religious Precepts on Fasting
Importance of Fasting

Question no. 97: Explain about the importance and benefits of fasting.
“Oh, you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, just as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may ward off [evil].” (The Quran, Baqara [2], 183)
Literally, Sawm (‘fasting’) means refraining from doing anything; but in jurisprudence, it means ‘refraining from eight things114 from the call to morning prayer up to the call to sunset prayer, intending to obey God’s command.’
There are numerous evidences in the history, showing that fasting was a ritual among the Christians and Jews as well as other nations. Faced with sorrow and sadness or when repenting and asking God’s satisfaction, they would fast in order to show their inability and weakness and confess their sins before God. We know from the Bible that the Christ (PBUH) had fasted for forty days.115The Holy Quran says explicitly, ‘…this divine obligation had been present in earlier nations as well’. (The Quran, Baqara [2], 183). Fasting has useful aspects and effects on human’s body and mind. The most important effects are as follows:
1. Fasting makes human’s soul delicate, strengthens his will, and modifies his instincts (‘that you may ward off [evil]’ refers to this);
2. Fasting aims at establishing equality between the poor and the rich, so that people may experience hunger and remember the poor’s hunger, and discharge their duty towards them;116
3. Fasting has a lot of hygienic and curative effects, leading to the physical health.117The Russian scientist, Alexi Soforin, regards fasting as the cure for many diseases, including anemia, weakness of the intestines, rheumatism, goat, diseases of the eyes, diabetes, and the diseases of the kidney and liver.118
Fasting is an instance of worship and the person who fasts must not do things invalidating it from the call to morning prayer until the call to sunset prayer in order to obey God’s command. It is not necessary for him to state this intention or even to have it in mind. The time for intention for the fasting of Ramadan or a certain vow is from the beginning of night until the call to morning prayer, and for an unknown fasting (such as a delayed fasting or an absolute vow) is from the beginning of night until the noon of the next day. As to the intention for a recommended fasting, the time span is from the beginning of night and extends to the whole day up to the point when there is enough time to intend before the sunset.
If the fasting person intentionally does something that invalidates his fast, the fast is void and must fast in a delayed time as well as pay a kaffāra (i.e. compensation) for it. The kaffāra for fasting is as follows: fasting for 2 months providing that 31 days are successive; feeding 60 poor persons to make them full, or he may give each of them one modd (about 750 grams) of wheat or barley or the like; it is not enough to give money to a poor person, unless it is certain that he will buy some food and accept it as the kaffāra. He may also give the money to one of the confident charity centers that will do the work for him (such as the offices of great religious authority or Imam Khomeini Relief Committee).
 

Obligatory Fasts
Question no. 98: Which fasts are the obligatory ones?
- The obligatory fasts are as follows:
1. The fast of Ramadan;
2. The fast for kaffāra;
3. The delayed fast;
4. The fasts for vow, oath and pledge;
5. Hire fasting;
6. The fast on the third day of i’tekāf (i.e. religious seclusion);
7. The fast instead of ritual sacrifice in Hajj.
 

Fast Evaders
Question no. 99: Which persons are permitted to evade fasting?
- Fasting is not obligatory for some groups of people; they are as follows:
1. Those old persons for whom fasting is difficult;
2. The pregnant women for whom or for whose unborn baby fasting is harmful;
3. The woman in lactation period for whom or for whose suckling baby fasting is harmful;
4. A sick person for whom fasting is harmful;
5. A person with an illness making him too much thirsty, which he cannot tolerate;
6. A person under the puberty age;
7. A woman seeing the blood of heyz and nefās;
8. Someone who travels somewhere with no intention to stay there at least 10 days;
9. A girl who is so weak that fasting is too difficult or harmful for her;
10. Someone who is unconscious or in coma;
11. Lunatics.119
 

The Blood in the Fasting Person’s Gum
Question no. 100: Sometimes my gum is bleeding and the blood is mixed with my spit; does gulping it invalidate my fast?
- If the blood is solved in the spit so that it is disappears, gulping it does not invalidate the fast.120
 

The Fasting Person and Dentistry
Question no. 101: Is it right to fill one’s teeth holes in Ramadan?
- Filling the teeth holes, removing the germs or taking out the tooth is permitted for the dentist, and it is permitted for the fasting person only if he is sure he will not gulp the blood or the liquid in the mouth.121
 

Smoke of a Vehicle
Question no. 102: Sometime, a fasting person stands by a vehicle and the smoke goes into his throat; does this invalidate his fast?
- If he believes the smoke would not go into his throat and this happens incidentally, the fasting is not invalidated.122
 

The Fasting Person’s washing his Head
Question no. 103: Is it right to wash one’s head under the tap while fasting?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Dipping the whole head into the water does not invalidate the fast, but it is strongly undesirable; this is not however the case with washing the head under the tap or the shower.123
 

Conjugal Relations for Fasting Persons
Question no. 104: It is permitted for a fasting person to do lovemaking (not intercourse) with his wife?
- If he does lovemaking with his wife with no intention to ejaculate – provided that this does not happen – there is no problem, and the fast is ok for him and his wife, even if the ejaculation happens incidentally. If, however, they go on lovemaking until ejaculation is about to happen and he does not avoid it until it happens, the fast is invalidated and he must both repeat the fasting as a delayed one later and pay a kaffāra.124
 

Question no. 105: What kind of lie invalidates the fast?
- Attributing lies to God, the Prophet, and the Imams invalidate fast according to an obligatory precaution.125
 

Question no. 106: If someone, believing it is not yet the time for calling to morning prayer, begins eating the dawn meal, then he notices the time has passed for it, is his fast right?
- If he begins eating without investigation about daybreak, his fast is invalidated and he must repeat it as a delayed one later.126
NOTE: In this case, although the fast is void, the person cannot break his fast until the call to sunset prayer.
 

Question no. 107: When I fast, my body gets unstable and I cannot do things such as studying; what must I do?
- These states normally appear in fasting and one may not break his fast because of them; however, if the weakness is so severe that one may not tolerate it, there is no problem with breaking the fast.127
NOTE: One may go on a trip in such cases, i.e. he can go as far as 22.5 kms to break his fast, then come back to his hometown. In this case, it is not necessary for him to keep on fasting up to the call to sunset prayer, and he may repeat it in a delayed time after the Ramadan without paying kaffāra.
 

Forgetting the Delayed Fast
Question no. 108: I did not fast some days in Ramadan, but I have forgotten the number of them; what must I do?
- It is enough to consider the least number as the correct number; in other words, you may repeat as the delayed fast just the number of days you are certain about.
 

The Kaffāra (Compensation) of Fast
Question no. 109: I did not fast intentionally, but I did not know I should pay kaffāra in addition to repeat the fast as a delayed one. Is it necessary, in this case, to pay the kaffāra?
- Yes, it is obligatory both to do the delayed fast and pay the kaffāra; being unaware of this precept does not lead to its being void.128
 

The Kaffāra for a Woman’s Fast
Question no. 110: Who must pay the kaffāra for a woman’s fasts, her husband or the woman herself?
- It is an obligation on the woman herself, and if she has no income, it is unnecessary for her to pay it.129
 

Question no. 111: What is the duty of a sick person – who has not been able to fast because of his sickness – if he postpones those fasts for some years?
- If he is cured during the same year, he must do the fasting as a delayed obligation; but if he postpones it to next years, he must then, in addition to doing it as a delayed fasting, give one modd (about 750 grams) of food to the poor for each day. If, however, his sickness goes on to the next year – and he cannot do it as a delayed one – he must only give one modd of food to the poor for each day.130
 

Ritual Impurity before the Call to the Morning Prayer
Question no. 112: What must a ritually impure person do if he has no access to water before the call to morning prayer?
- If he has no access to water before the call to morning prayer, he must perform a dry ablution instead of major ablution and his fast is ok. After the call to prayer, if he has access to water, he must perform major ablution for the morning prayer; otherwise, he must say his morning prayer with the dry ablution.131
 

Postponing the Major Ablution for Ritual Impurity
Question no. 113: If we are ritually impure in a Ramadan night and postpone our major ablution almost until the call to morning prayer to perform the major ablution, is our fasting right?
- In this case (though it is sinful to postpone the major ablution), if you perform a dry ablution before the call to morning prayer, your fast is right.132
 

Ritual Impurity of a Fasting Person
Question no. 114: I have said my prayers and done my fasting in a state of ritual impurity for some years, while I did not know it is an obligation for the ritually impure person to perform major ablution. What must I do now?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If you have not spared efforts in learning religious precepts, your fasts are right and no delayed repetition is required. However, your prayers said in that state must be repeated anyway.133
NOTE: Ritual purity is a real prerequisite for the prayer, so the prayers said in a state of ritual impurity, even if because of unawareness, are invalid.
 

Masturbation of a Fasting Person
Question no. 115: When young, I would sometimes masturbate in Ramadan, while I was quite unaware of this being illicit or its being an invalidator of my fasts. What must I do now?
- It is not necessary for you to pay kaffāra; and if your unawareness was to the extent that you did not even consider that action as an invalidator of fast, it is not necessary to repeat your fasts too.134
 

Travelling in Ramadan
Question no. 116: Can one travel in Ramadan? What is the precept for the fasts then?
- There is no problem with travelling in Ramadan; however, if it is done with the intention to evade fasting, it is ritually undesirable.135
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Religious Precepts on the Beginning of [Islamic] Month
Seeing the Crescent

Question no. 117: State in brief the ways to prove the beginning of the month.
- The beginning of the month is proved in the following ways:
1. The individual himself sees the moon;
2. Two just men attest having seen the moon;
3. A group of reliable people say that they have seen the moon;
4. Thirty days has passed from the beginning of Sha’ban;
5. The Islamic Judge (Hākem-e Shar’, i.e. a qualified religious authority) proclaims the beginning of the month;136
NOTE: In Ayatollah Sūstānī’s view, the last item (no. 5) is not accepted.
 

Disagreements among Religious Authorities
Question no. 118: What is the reason for disagreements among religious authorities in proclaiming the beginning of Ramadan and the Fetr celebration? Did these disagreements exist in the past too?
- Disagreement among the religious authorities on the proof for the beginning of the month is nothing new; this has always been an issue of disagreement among them. Various factors have led to this disagreement, most important of which are as follows:
1. Validity of ‘unity of horizon’. Some believe that if the moon crescent is seen in one place on the earth, whose horizon is different from other place but they share a common night time, the beginning of the month is proved in all of those places as well. In contrast, there are jurists who believe in the ‘unity of horizon’, holding that if the moon crescent is seen in a city whose horizon is different from another city or country, the beginning of the month is not religiously proved for the latter. Obviously, according to the first view, the beginning of the month is one day earlier than that in the second view.
2. Validity of the Islamic Judge’s declaration. The authority and influence of the Islamic Judge’s declaration is a known issue among the jurists. Some, however, do not believe in its validity as to the beginning of the month.
3. Witnesses’ attestation before the Islamic Judge. Sometimes, the qualified religious authority becomes sure about the beginning of the month based on the attestation of those who have seen the moon crescent, and accordingly proclaims the beginning of the month. There may be situations when in absence of some conditions this certainty is not obtained by another religious authority.
Disagreements among the jurist as to the abovementioned affairs are due to disagreements in a series of theoretical and intellectual principles. Various theorizations in literature and principle of jurisprudence, different readings of the Quranic verse and transmitted traditions, and disagreements in the authority of traditions and recognizing the transmitters naturally lead to differences in some religious decrees.
 

Question no. 119: Considering the fact that we face disagreements as to the beginning of Ramadan every year, how would be the Qadr night?
- To do the rites of the Qadr night137, it is enough for every individual to act according to his own religious authority or the Islamic Judge’s decree or his own certainty, observing the vigil in three nights of Qadr. In this case, God will certainly bestow upon him the determined blessings and rewards, and he would most probably grasp the Qadr night as well. To certainly grasp the blessings of the Qadr night, it is better for one to observe vigil in six nights. This is attested by sayings transmitted from the Impeccable.138
 

Question no. 120: If there appears disagreement among the religious authorities as to the Fetr celebration, what must the imitators do? Must any person act according to his own religious authority’s view?
- In the proof for beginning of the month, there is no imitation; rather, if the person is certain of Fetr through his own religious authority’s declaration, he must break his fast; otherwise, he must go on fasting that day.139
 

Question no. 121: If the moon crescent for Ramadan or Shawwal is seen in a country whose horizon is one or two hours different from that of our city, is this a proof for the beginning of the month for us as well?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If the country or city where the moon crescent was seen is on the east of your city, the beginning of the month is proved for you as well. And if it is not on the east of your city, it is not proved.140
 

The Islamic Judge’s Decree
Question no. 122: Is the Islamic Judge’s decree as to the beginning of the month valid even for those who do not imitate him?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: The beginning of the month is not proved through the Islamic Judge’s decree.141
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Yes, the Islamic Judge’s decree is a proof for the beginning of the month for all, unless they notice his being wrong.142
 

News from a Just Person
Question no. 123: If some just men attest that two just men have seen the moon crescent, is this a proof for the beginning of Ramadan or Shawwal?
- No, the two just men themselves must attest that they have seen the moon crescent; and it is not enough that they attest through mediators, unless this makes one certain of the fact.143
 

Equipped Eyes
Question no. 124: Is seeing the moon crescent with telescopes and astronomical devices valid?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: No, unless this makes one certain about the beginning of the month.144
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Yes, using telescope and other astronomical devices may prove the beginning of the month.145
 

Guessing and Speculation
Question no. 125: If we guess through sayings by a group of people that tomorrow is Fetr, can we fast in that case?
- Until it is certain that tomorrow is the first day of Shawwal, the fasting person cannot break his fast.146
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Religious Precepts on Fetra alms
The Meaning and Philosophy of Fetra

Question no. 126: Explain the meaning of Fetra alms and the uses of paying it.
- Literally, Fetra has several meanings, the most important of which are ‘creation’ and ‘Islam’. In terminology, it means ‘the alms paid to a needy person by a Muslim for himself and all those who are considered his dependents’. The time to pay it is from the sunset of the last day of Ramadan until the noon of the Fetr day (the first day of Shawwal).
Considering the fact that paying such alms leads to physical and mental health, it is called the alms for body or Fetra alms. Perhaps, its relation to the meaning of Islam is because the Fetra alms are a requirement for Islam. Thus, it is obligatory for any person who becomes a Muslim before the sunset of the last day of Ramadan to pay Fetra alms.
Paying Fetra alms is obligatory according to both Shiite and Sunnite, and in religious texts, numerous benefits have been mentioned, the most important of which are as follows:
1. Fetra alms are a complement for fasting of Ramadan, just as salawāt (saying ‘peace be upon the holy Prophet and his progeny’) is the complement for the prayer.147
2. It causes the fasts of Ramadan to be accepted by God.148
3. It protects the person against death in that year.149
4. It causes the person’s spiritual health and one’s spiritual purification from moral vices.150
5. It is a complement to the Zakāt [q.v.].151
 

Dependent of the Government
Question no. 127: Who must pay the Fetra alms of a university student or a soldier who uses free food provided by the government?
- He himself must pay the Fetra alms; and if he cannot pay it, there is no need to do so.152
 

The Fetrya (Fetra alms) of an Embryo
Question no. 128: Is it obligatory to pay Fetrya for an unborn child?
- No, it is not obligatory to pay Fetrya for an unborn child, unless it is born before the sunset of the night before the Fetr celebration.153
 

Paying Fetrya to One’s Child
Question no. 129: Can a father pay the Fetra alms to his offspring who is needy?
- If the offspring are needy, it is obligatory for the parents to provide them with what they need, and one cannot pay the Fetra alms to them.154
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Religious Precepts on Khoms
(One-Fifth Religious Tax)

Question no. 130: Explain about Khoms and its importance.
- ‘And know whatever you take as the spoils of war, one fifth of it is for Allah, and for the Messenger and for the kinsman [who are needy] and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer if you believe in Allah and what we revealed unto our slave on the day of discrimination, the day when the two armies met. And Allah is able to do all things.’ (The Quran, Anfāl [8], 41.)
Literally, Khoms means one-fifth, and in jurisprudence, it refers to ‘paying one-fifth of one’s income through farming, industry, trade, research, or through labor and employment in various organization.155Khoms goes to Imam and the Sayyeds; and, in the Occultation Period, it must be paid to the qualified jurist.’156
The Holy Legislator has allowed the owner to pay one-fifth of what he earns during the year after one year if he has not used it – or a proportion of it – for himself or his family as a ma’ūna (i.e. the needs of the daily life).
The verse on khoms was revealed to the Prophet and he himself executed this obligation. Certainly, the Holy Prophet would obtain one-fifth of the war spoils. But obtaining one-fifth of what is earned through trade was postponed until the time of twelfth Imam, though due to necessity or expediency. It is, however, a necessity in the time of Imams.157
Khoms is one of the Islamic obligations, and has been mentioned along with the Jihad by the Holy Quran which considers both from the roots of the faith, since the sign of the truth in faith is the struggle with acquisitiveness and purifying one’s soul. Imam Bāqer says, ‘No one is allowed to buy something from the property whose khoms has not been paid, unless he pays us our right.’158
The verse 41 of the Anfāl (chapter 6 of the Quran) explicitly emphasizes the Muslims’ obligation to pay khoms; hence the Shiite and Sunnite consensus on its being obligatory. Of course, there may be ambiguities as to the reference of the verse to cases such as personal income; however, considering different transmitted traditions, the obligation to pay the khoms of one’s income is well deduced.159
Khoms has various mysteries and philosophies such as the followings:
1. It is used to financially support the Imam as the head of the government to further the cause of the Islamic government and administration of society;160hence the name ‘Wajh al-Imāra’ (the money for emirate) for khoms in transmitted traditions.161
2. God the Almighty determined khoms as a source for providing the Prophet and the poor among Banī Hāshem (the tribe in which the Prophet was born) and the dependents of the Prophet to preserve their dignity and respect, so that they may be protected against humility.162
3. Khoms is used for any charity work that Imam wants to do, and is used in any case he considers to be good.163
4. Khoms is a means of human’s growth and perfection, leading to attracting God’s blessings and forgiving the sins.164
5. Khoms has become obligatory for revival of divine religion and realization of Islamic government.165
 

Khoms of a University Student’s Income
Question no. 131: Is it obligatory for a university student who is dependent on his/ her family’s income to pay the khoms?
- Khoms must be paid for any income that comes from doing a job, if it remains after passing one year.166
NOTE: The precept for occasional incomes such as gifts, rewards, etc. is mentioned under the topic ‘Khoms of a gift’
 

Khoms of a Grant or Allowance
Question no. 132: Must one pay the khoms of an allowance or grant obtained during his study period in a university?
- No, there is no khoms payment needed for such grants.167
NOTES: a) A grant is a loan given to a student during his study, and it is taken back a few years later by installment. b) if the grant is saved until the end of the installments, the khoms of the loan and the interest must be paid.
 

Khoms of a Woman’s Income
Question no. 133: Is it necessary for a woman with income from her job, but paid alimony by her husband to pay the khoms?
- Yes, it is necessary to pay the khoms; but if she has spent some of it in the daily expenses, she must pay the khoms of the remaining portion.168
 

Khoms of Scholarship Money
Question no. 134: Is it necessary to pay the khoms for scholarship money paid to students?
- Yes, if it is saved as extra money up to the end of the year.169
 

Khoms of a Deposit Account
Question no. 135: Is it necessary to pay the khoms for money deposited in a bank, whose interest is used for subsistence?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the deposited money comes from one’s income through his job, he must pay the khoms; if he is unable to manage his life after paying the khoms (even if by installments), there is no need to pay it.170
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If the deposited money comes from one’s income through his job, he must pay the khoms; if he is unable to manage his life after paying the khoms, he may ask permission to use the money temporarily.171
 

Khoms of the Equities of Stock Exchange
Question no. 136: Must I pay the khoms of the equities I buy from the stock exchange?
- Yes, at the end of the [khoms] year, you must pay the khoms, since it is a kind of asset.
 

Khoms of a gift
Question 137: Must one pay the khoms of a gift or a prize he has obtained?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: There is no khoms for a gift.172
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it is not spent up to the end of khoms year, he must pay the khoms.173
 

Question 138: Must one pay the khoms of the money saved for buying the goods necessary for living?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Yes, if it is saved up to the end of the khoms year, the khoms must be paid for it.174
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it is saved for buying the necessary goods in a near future (e.g. up to three months after the khoms year), and he cannot buy it if he pays the khoms, there is no need to pay khoms.175
 

The Khoms of a Loan for Buying a House
Question no. 139: Must one pay the khoms of the money saved in a bank for a few years to get a loan for buying a house in the future?
 

- Yes, he must pay the khoms.176
The Khoms of Necessary Goods

Question no. 140: I have bought some goods I needed, but I didn’t use them for more than a year; must I pay the khoms now?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If they have been subject to use, there is no need to pay the khoms.177
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: He must pay the khoms, unless it is necessary to be present at home and may not be bought immediately once it is needed. In this case, if it is customary to buy such goods beforehand, there is no need to pay the khoms.178
 

The Khoms of a Piece of Land
Question no. 141: I have bought a piece of land out of my income to build a house in it in two years; must I pay the khoms for it at the end of the year?
- If there is no other way to prepare a house, there is no need to pay the khoms of the land.179
 

The Khoms of the Money Saved for Marriage
Question no. 142: Must one pay the khoms of the money he has saved for marriage in future?
- Aytollah Sīstānī: Yes, he must pay the khoms.180
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it is saved for the costs of marriage in the near future (e.g. up to three months after the khoms year), and he cannot prepare it if he pays the khoms, there is no need to pay khoms.181
 

Due Debt
Question no. 143: I have borrowed some money for necessary expenses, which is due on a few months after the khoms year deadline; can I subtract it from my income?
- If you pay the debt before the khoms year deadline, you may subtract the sum from your income.182
 

The Khoms of Gold
Question no. 144: A woman buys some gold and jewelry from her own income, which she always uses as ornaments. Her husband has no money to pay for such things; is it necessary for the woman to pay the khoms of the jewelry she has bought?
- If it is in proportion to common usage and is right for his status, there is no need to pay the khoms.183
 

Expending the Khoms
Question no. 145: Is it permitted to expend khoms in cultural affairs or for building academic and scientific centers?
- It must be expended according to the permission granted by religious authority.184
 

The Khoms Year
Question no. 146: When must one set his khoms year?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: The beginning of the khoms year for those with daily income (merchants, traders, shopkeepers, …) is from the day they begin their work, for employees or workers who get salaries is from their first salary, and for farmers and the like is from the time when they harvest their first crop; all of these individuals, if the income exceeds the living expenses for one year, must pay the khoms of it (one-fifth of what remains after a year).185
Ayatollah Sīstānī: The beginning of the khoms year for anyone is from the time they begin their work; if the income exceeds the living expenses for one year, they must pay the khoms of it.186
 

The Time for Khoms
Question no. 147: Someone earns less than his living expenses, but he may have some extra money, edible material and so on at the end of the year; is it necessary for him to set a khoms year and pay the khoms?
- Yes, if his income is not spent for his expenses, he must pay the khoms of the remaining portion.187
 

Calculation of Khoms
Question no. 148: State the method of calculating khoms.
- Farmers, traders, employees, workers and all of those who earn through a job must set a khoms year for themselves, calculating through the following method:
At the end of one year passed from the first income, it is the time for calculating. All of what are spent and gone (such as food, washing material, pens, etc), if exceed the year and are worthy in the market, the khoms of which must be paid on the basis of today’s price. What are not gone after using (such as carpet, fridge, car, …), although exceed the year, are not subject to khoms.188
Example: An employee gets his first salary at the end of Khordad (3rd month of the Persian calendar) in 1380 AH; his khoms year is at the end of Khordad 1381. At that date, what have remained for him include 10 kilos of rice, 5 kilos of split pea, 5 boxes of washing powder, and 500,000 Rials. He must set aside one-fifth of each of these to pay as the khoms, or he may calculate the total price and pay one-fifth of it.
NOTE 1: As to the person with no job, if he makes an incidental deal and gets the profit, he must pay the khoms of what has remained after one year has passed.189
NOTE 2: There is disagreement among religious authorities as to the khoms of some kinds of income (such as gifts, bank prizes, …)
 

Question no. 149: If we put a ‘mukhammas money’ (i.e. what we have paid its khoms) and ‘ghayr mukhammas’ (i.e. what we have not paid its khoms) in one single account, can we use it for living expenses?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Yes, it is permitted.190
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: No, it is not permitted; rather, you must pay the khoms of the remaining part in proportion to both categories, unless you separate the two before spending the money, and pay the expenses from the ghayr mukhammas money.191
 

Evading the Khoms
Question no. 150: Can one evade paying the khoms by granting his properties to his wife before the khoms year, so that the wife gives back the money after calculation of khoms?
- No, he must pay the khoms anyway.192
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Religious Precept on Music and Feasts
Effects of Music

Question no. 151: Explain the reason for music’s being illicit?
- “And of mankind is he who pays for mere pastime of discourse, that he may mislead from Allah’s way without knowledge, and makes it the butt of mockery. For such [people] there is a shameful doom.” (The Quran, Loqmān [31], 6).
The word ‘music’ is derived from the Greek word ‘mousike’, and is equivalent to Arabic word ‘ghenā’; however, in jurisprudential and religious realm, these two are different. In legal term, ghenā refers to “a song repeated in the singer’s throat, which creates a joyous state in the hearer and is suitable for frivolities and libidinous pleasures (called lahwī music); but ‘music’ is ‘the sound produced by the musical instruments’. Accordingly, there is an ‘absolute generality and peculiarity’ relationship between the scientific music and music in jurisprudence.193
There are several verses in the Quran, which show the religiously illicit nature of frivolous music and ghenā.194 Besides, all religious authorities are in agreement as to the illicitness of [lahwī] music and ghenā.
A brief look at the Quranic verses and Islamic traditions as well as what psychologists have stated shows the following reasons for the illicitness of [lahwī] music:
1. It leads the listeners to corruption and vice;195
2. It makes the listeners neglect God;196
3. It leaves bad effects on one’s nerves and psyche.197
As regards the music and ghenā, the following points are worth mentioning:
a) Not all musical pieces and songs are considered illicit; rather, just those musical pieces suitable for frivolous parties are illicit, and there is no problem with music free of such features or those that are doubtful.
b) The words “tarab” and “lahw” are two key words used regarding the music and ghenā. “Tarab” refers to the frivolous state in a person’s soul and heart, resulted from listening to a song or music and taking him away from the state of mental equilibrium. This is not specific to the state of joy. Rather, it may result from the sad songs and music as well.198
“Lahw” refers to a song or music that is suitable for libidinous parties and meetings. Accordingly, there may be some songs not creating the state of tarab, but still used only in the meetings of corrupt and perverse people. This is called “lahwī”, and if a song or music has both features of tarab and lahw, it is called lahwī motreb.
All religious authorities regard being ‘lahwī’ as the feature leading to the illicitness of a song or music, but there is disagreement as to the ‘tarab’ feature.199
c) The musical instruments are divided into two kinds: those used specifically for illicit instruments, and those common between illicit and licit music.
The former refers to those instruments generally used for lahw, no licit usage. The latter refers to those instruments used both for licit and illicit purposes. The former is absolutely forbidden and the latter depends on the way one uses it.
 

The Religious Precept on Playing Music
Question 152: State the religious precept for playing musical instruments.
- If an instrument is among those specifically used for illicit music, it is not permitted anyway. If it is a common instrument, there is no problem with using it for licit purposes.200
 

The Religious Precept on Various Types of Music
Question no. 153: Is there any difference of precept regarding various types of music – traditional, classic, pop, local, etc.?
- No, there is no difference among them, and the criterion for illicitness is the features of lawh and tarab.201
 

Listening to Music
Question no. 154: What is religious precept on a piece of music without song?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Listening to any lahwī and motreb music (even though without songs) used for frivolous and sinful meetings is not permitted.202
Ayatollah Sīstānī: Listening to any lahwī music (even though without songs) used for frivolous and sinful meetings is not permitted.203
 

Illicit Music
Question no. 155: Is listening to music illicit if it has no effect on the person?
- If it is among the illicit type of music, listening to it is not permitted, even though it has no effect on the listener.204
NOTE: Illicit music has destructive effects on the listeners’ mind and soul, leading to neglecting God, corruption and arousal of passion; however, the religious precept is not dependent on these things, and the lahwī music is illicit even if it has apparently no such effects on the listener.
 

Sport Music
Question no. 156: What is the religious precept on the music leading to one’s getting more energy?
- If it is of the illicit type of music, listening to it is not permitted anyway.205
 

Arousing Music
Question no. 157: Can a couple listen to lahwī music to be sexually aroused for one another?
- No, Listening to illicit music is not permitted, and increasing sexual desire for one’s spouse is no legal justification for this.206
 

Musical Meetings
Question no. 158: If we are obliged to listen to lahwī music in a meeting, have we committed a sin anyway?
- If you are likely to be effected by it, you must forbid evil (if the conditions are prepared). If they would not accept what you say, you must leave the place (if your presence leads to a kind of affirming the sin committed there), unless your leaving leads to disturbance and dissension. In this case, there is no problem with staying there as far as it is necessary. However, you must avoid listening to the illicit music; and if you hear it unintentionally, there is no problem with it.207
 

Question no. 159: Is there any problem with taking part in meetings where illicit music is played (while admonishing is in vein)?
- Taking part in meetings where one may listen to illicit music or affirm it is not permitted, unless one can forbid evil.208
 

Recognizing Types of Music
Question no. 160: What is the criterion and authority for recognizing an illicit music in the Islamic system? Is there a single institute for this?
- In recognizing the licit and illicit music, one must refer to the common sense practice.209
NOTE: Jurists and music experts may also state their own opinion as ordinary individuals.
 

Copying a Music Cassette
Question no. 161: Is the income obtained through copying and selling music cassettes or CDs legitimate or not?
- If the music is illicit, buying and selling such cassettes and CDs are also illicit.210
 

Music on TV
Question no. 162: Sometimes pieces of music are played on TV or through players, which seem to be illicit, while others do not believe so; can I prevent them from listening to it?
- It is obligatory for you not to listen, but forbidding others depends on their own belief.211
NOTE: One of the conditions for ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil’ is that the illicitness of the evil be certain for the wrongdoer, or that he insists on doing it; in the abovementioned question, the other persons believe the music to be licit, so there is no need to ‘forbid evil’ in this case.
 

Music in the Workplace
Question no. 163: I work in a place where the owner always listens to the frivolous and illicit music, and I unavoidably hear it; is this job permitted for me?
- You may forbid the evil (under proper conditions), if the owner is likely to accept your idea. If not and you are obliged to work there, you must not listen to the music intentionally; otherwise, there is no problem with it.212
NOTE: If the person can change his job with little difficulty, he must choose to do so.
 

Clapping
Question no. 164: What is the religious precept for clapping in wedding parties?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: There is no problem with it, if it is customary and without lahw.213
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Clapping is not problematic in itself.214
 

Imams’ Birthday Celebrations
Question no. 165: What is the religious precept on clapping during the celebrations held for Imams’ birthdays?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it is not in the form of lahw, there is no problem with it; however, it is better to avoid this in such ceremonies and say Takbīr or Salawāt instead.215
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: There is no problem with it; however, it is better to avoid this in such ceremonies and say Takbīr or Salawāt instead.216
 

Religious Precept on Dancing
Question no. 166: Is there any problem with dancing by men and women?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it causes corruption, moral deviation and sin, or if the woman dances among non-mahram [q.v.] men, it is illicit.217
Ayatollah Sīstānī: The only permitted dance is that done by woman for her husband or vice-versa.218
 

Dancing by a Wife
Question 167: Can a woman dance for her husband while they listen to joyful music?
- Dancing by a woman for her husband is permitted only if it is not accompanied by illicit music.219
 

Watching Dance
Question no. 168: Is it permitted to watch dancing on TV?
- Watching dance on TV, if it arouses passion or leads to corruption, is not permitted.220
NOTE: Watching dance on TV is not the same as being present in a sinful meeting, unless it causes corruption and sin.
 

A Woman’s Singing
Question no. 169: What is the religious precept on listening to a woman’s singing on a cassette, who recites poems composed by Hāfez, Mowlawī, etc.?
- There is no problem with listening to a woman’s singing, provided that it is not in the form of ghenā, does not generate sexual pleasure, does not arouse passion, and does not lead to any corruption.221
NOTE: Ghenā is the repetition of sound in a joyful manner, which is suitable for frivolous meetings.
 

Women’s Chorus
Question no. 170: Is it permitted for a man and women to sing with other women or men in a chorus?
- If it is not in the form of ghenā, and does not cause sexual arousal or corruption, there is no problem with it.222
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Religious Precepts on Covering
Importance of Veiling

Question no. 171: Explain about veiling and the reason why it is religiously obligatory.
- “…and to display of their (women’s) adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosom, …” (The Quran, Nūr [24], 31).
Literally, hejāb (‘veiling’) means covering, and terminologically, it refers to ‘women’s hiding themselves from men’. What Islam has made obligatory for women is the very covering referred to variously by jurists as setr or sāter.
The veil and covering has been present among some nations – including ancient Iranians, Jews, and Indians – before Islam, and has been even more rigid than veiling in Islam.223
In Islam, this obligation was proclaimed in the 4th – 5th AH.224
Veiling is one of the necessary religious precepts of Islam, being agreed upon by both Shiite and Sunnite religious scholars. God Almighty has revealed three verses 225 on this precept in Medina, and in two of them, He has referred to women’s covering.226 Besides, numerous traditions have been transmitted on the importance and nature of hejāb.
Imam Ali (PBUH) says, ‘A woman’s veiling is better for her, and makes her beauty more durable.’227
The women’s veiling has two basic goals and philosophies:
1. Ensuring women’s immunity against capricious persons;
2. Preventing sexual arousal and providing the society’s health. (The Quran, Ahzāb [33], 59)
As regards the veiling, some points must be noted here:
a) A woman must hide her body, her cosmetics, and all her ornaments from non-mahram [q.v.] men, except her face and her hands.
b) Although Islam has made no points on the form and type of one’s dress, only stressing on the veiling in general, it is clear that one’s dress must not be too tight, too sheer and revealing the body, or attracting others’ attention. Thus, chador is considered as the best veil. Besides, chador is among those dresses whose black color is considered a merit in transmitted traditions.
c) Avoiding attractive way of speaking which attracts capricious looks, her serenity in walking, and not wearing shoes attractive to others are all among a woman’s codes of veiling.
d) Although it is not obligatory for a man to cover himself completely, it is illicit for a woman to look at a man’s body. This is also the case with a woman’s face and hands; in other words, a man’s libidinous look at a woman’s face and hands is also illicit.
 

Religious Precept on Wearing a Gown
Question no. 172: What is the religious precept on wearing gowns revealing the body elevated parts (breast and hips)?
- It is not permitted if it causes sexual arousal.228
 

Question no. 173: Is it necessary for a woman to wear herself before a minor child?
- If the child discerns good and evil, and it is likely that looking at the woman’s body would arouse his sexual desire, she must cover her body and hair.229
 

Covering Under the Chin
Question no. 174: Is it necessary for a woman to cover body parts such as under her chin as well as her feet?
- Yes, she must cover them before a non-mahram [q.v.] man.230
 

A Woman’s Covering Her Face
Question no. 175: What is religious duty of a woman who knows other men would look at her for her beauty? Is it necessary for her to cover her face?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If this would not lead to evil and corruption, covering the face is not necessary; however, it is obligatory for the men not to look at her.231
 

Women’s Eau de Cologne
Question no. 176: Is it permitted for a woman to use eau de colognes and perfumes before going out of home?
- No, it is not permitted.232
 

Women’s Ornaments
Question no. 177: If the women’s ornaments are seen by other men, what is her duty?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: They must be hidden from the non-mahram [q.v.] men.233
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is obligatory to hide the necklace from non-mahrams [q.v.], but hiding bracelet, bangle, wing, and wedding ring is not necessary.234
 

Covering the Face’s Adornment
Question no. 178: Is it necessary for a woman to hide her eyeliner, face adornment, and colored eyebrows from non-mahrams [q.v.]?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: No, it is not obligatory to hide them.235
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It must be hidden from non-mahrams [q.v.] if it is considered an adornment.236
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Religious Precepts on Non-Mahrams
Phone Call

Question no. 179: Is there any difference, as regards the religious precepts, between a woman’s direct talk with a non-mahram [q.v.] man and over a phone?
- No, there is no difference, and if the talk happens to be with an intention of sexual pleasure, it is religiously problematic.237
 

Talking for Marriage
Question no. 180. Is it sinful to talk to someone whom we intend to marry in the future?
- There is no problem with it if it is done without an intention of sexual pleasure and there is no fear of having an illicit relation.238
 

Chatting with a Person of Other Sex
Question no. 181: What is the religious precept on chatting with a person of other sex on normal issues?
- If there is a fear of committing a sin, it is not permitted.239
 

Celebrations at University
Question 182: Is there any problem with celebrations at university, where the male and female students are present together?
- There is no problem with girls’ and boys’ being present in one place; but if the girls do not observe Islamic veiling and the boys look at them sinfully and there exist other illicit things (such as illicit music and the like), this congregation is not permitted.240
 

Question no. 183: Can female and male students take part in expeditions together?
 

Greeting to a Non-Mahram
Question no. 184: Is there any problem with a woman’s greeting to another man and vice-versa?
- If it is done without an intention of sexual pleasure, it is permitted.241
 

Jesting with Non-Mahram
Question no. 185: What is the religious precept on jesting with a non-mahram [q.v.]?
- It is not permitted if it is done with an intention of sexual pleasure, or if there is a fear of having an illicit affair.242
 

Laughing with a Non-Mahram
Question no. 186: Is there any problem with a woman’s laughing while talking to a non-mahram [q.v.] man?
- If her laughing is in a form which arouses the man’s passion, it is not permitted.243
 

A Girl and a Boy’s Collaboration
Question no. 187: Is there any problem with collaboration and intimate relation between a girl and a boy at workplace or in parties?
- Friendship between girls and boys is not permitted, because there is the fear of an illicit relation. However, there is no problem with relationship at work if there is no corruption and the religious rules are observed.244
 

Closeting with Non-Mahram
Question no. 188: Is there any problem with two non-mahrams [q.v.] closeting with one another in a place?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If no one can enter the place and they fear committing a sin, their staying there is illicit.245
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If they are likely to commit a sin, their staying there is illicit, even though someone else can enter the place.246
 

Sitting Beside a Non-Mahram
Question no. 189: Sometimes men and women sit beside one another on a vehicle while their bodies are in contact; what is the religious duty here?
- There is no problem with a man and a woman’s bodies being in contact over clothes; however, if it arouses sexual desire and leads to corruption, it is not permitted.247
 

Shaking Hands with Non-Mahrams
Question no. 190: If it is customary for a men and women in a region to shake hands, and not doing so is regarded impolite, what is the religious precept here?
- Shaking hands with a non-mahram [q.v.] is not permitted, and the religious rites must be observed; besides, there would be no impoliteness if the religious laws are explained for those people.248
 

Sexually Arousing Stories
Question 191: Is it religiously permitted to read sexually arousing stories?
- If it arouses sexual desire, it is not permitted.249
 

Corresponding with Non-Mahrams
Question no. 192: What is the religious precept on corresponding with a non-mahram [q.v.] and writing about sexually arousing things via email?
- Speaking of things which prepares the ground for corruption and sin is not permitted.250
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Religious Precepts on Looking
Looking at Non-Mahrams

Question no. 193: Explain about illicitness of looking at a non-mahram [q.v.]?
- “Tell the believing men to lower their gaze…” (The Quran, Nūr [24], 30);
“And tell the believing women to lower their gaze…” (The Quran, Nūr [24], 31)
In Islam, religiously illicit look is ‘a man’s looking at a non-mahram [q.v.] woman’s body (except for her face and her hands up to the wrist), whether it is done passionately or not. Besides, it is illicit to look at such a woman’s face and hands passionately. It is also true for a woman’s looking at a non-mahram [q.v.] man’s body (except for his face, hands, neck, and the lower part of the leg), whether it is done passionately or not; besides, it is illicit to look at such a man’s face and hands passionately. Imam Sādeq says, ‘Looking at a non-mahram [q.v.] is a poisoned arrow shot by the Satan, and many a look that leads to a long yearning’251
 

Licit Looks
Question no. 194: What are the licit and permitted looks?
- Looking at rural women who do not veil normally;
- Looking at the unveiled photo of an unfamiliar woman;
- Looking at someone of the same sex (except the private parts);
- Looking at a woman, intending to marry her;
- Looking at an old woman whom there is no willingness to marry (looking at those parts which are not normally covered, such as hair, neck, and hands);
- Looking at a non-Muslim woman, whether from the People of the Scripture (Ahl ul-Ketab) or not – except for those parts which are normally covered;
NOTE: the permission of looking in the abovementioned cases is only if there is no fear of committing a sin.
 

Illicit Looks
Question no. 195: What are the illicit and unpermitted looks?
- Looking at the toileted face of a woman;
- Looking at a woman’s ornaments;
- Looking at unveiled photo of a woman;
- Looking passionately (with a fear to commit sins);
- Looking at a non-mahram [q.v.] man (except for his face and hands);
- Looking at a non-mahram [q.v.] woman’s body (except for her face and hands up to the wrist);
- Any passionate looking (even though at someone’s hands or face and even if of the same sex)
 

Looking at a Girl’s Photo
Question no. 196: Can a man watch a girl’s movie or photo if he wants to marry her? What if she is one of the relatives or acquaintances?
- If this is done without passion, there is no problem even if the girl is from the relatives or acquaintances.252
 

Looking at Girls
Question no. 197: Someone wants to marry. Can he look at the face and hair of some girls (e.g. in the streets) without passion to choose one among them and court her?
- This kind of looking is not permitted.253
 

Looking for Courting
Question no. 198: How much can a man look at a woman’s body when courting her (if the specified conditions are observed)?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: He can look at the girl’s body, though it is recommended precaution to look just at her face and hands, foots, and some parts of her body such as her neck and the upper part of her chest.254
- He can just look at her face and hands, foots, and some parts of her body such as her neck and the upper part of her chest.255
NOTE: The conditions for looking at a girl to court her are as follows:
1) It must be done without passion;
2) It must be aimed just at knowing her physical condition;
3) There must be no obstacle for marriage;
4) There must be the probability that the girl would not reject him.
 

Looking at a Man
Question 199: What is the religious precept on a woman’s looking at a non-mahram [q.v.] man’s arm and elbow?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is not permitted.256
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it is without sexual pleasure and with no probability of committing a sin, there is no problem with it.257
 

Looking at a Little Girl
Question no. 200: Is it permitted to look at a minor girl’s body and hair?
- If it is without sexual pleasure and with no probability of committing a sin, there is no problem with it; however, it is recommended precaution not to look at those parts (such as the thigh and belly) which are normally covered.258
 

The Movie of a Non-Mahram
Question no. 201: What is the religious precept on looking at the movie clips of those relatives or acquaintances who do not observe Islamic veiling?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: There is no problem with it if it does not lead into corruption.259
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is not permitted to look at their photos or movies.260
 

Arousing Movie
Question no. 202: Can a husband and a wife watch porn movies for sexual arousal?
- No, sexual arousal by porn movies is not permitted.261
 

Question no. 203: If watching porn movies diminishes one’s sexual desire and prevents him from illicit actions, can he watch them?
- Watching porn movies is not permitted, and the abovementioned justification is no permission for committing a sin.262
 

Question no. 204: Is it permitted to watch movies in which non-Muslim women play roles if it does not lead to one’s sexual arousal?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: In view of the fact that watching these movies arouses sexual desire and leads to illicit action, it is illicit.263
- Ayatollah Sūstānī: Based on an obligatory precaution, it is not permitted to watch those women, even if this is done without intention of gaining pleasure.264
 

Photography
Question no. 205: What is the religious precept on printing photos and mixing clips of women?
- If the operator does not know the women and there is no probability of corruption, there would be no problem.265
 

Watching Sportsmen
Question no. 206: What is the religious precept on the women’s presence at men’s sport fields where the sportsmen play with short clothes?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is not permitted for women to look at men’s bodies, even if not passionately.266
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Since the women’s presence in such places causes corruption, it is not permitted.267
 

Sport Films:
Question no. 207: What is the religious precept on women’s watching half-naked men’s sport matches on TV screen?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: There is no problem with it if it is not done passionately and does not lead to corruption.268
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If the match is not live on TV and the watching is not done passionately, there is no problem; if the match is live, watching it is not permitted for women based on obligatory precaution.269
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Religious Precepts on Marriage
Importance of Marriage

Question no. 208: Explain about the Importance of marriage and its benefits.
- “And marry such of you as are solitary and pious of your slaves and maid-servants. If they be pour, Allah will enrich them of his bounty. Allah is of ample means, Aware.” (The Quran, Nūr [24], 32).
No foundation is more sacred than the high building of marriage.270Every nation enjoys this institution in its own religion and customs. Islam, more than any other religion, has put emphasis on marriage and enumerated important effects and benefits. The jurists have regarded marriage as an emphasized recommended ritual, considering it as obligatory for the person who may do illicit actions because of not marrying. The Holy Prophet says, ‘The one who marries, protects his half of faith.’271
There are some benefits for marriage:
1. Continuing one’s generation;
2. Mental and physical peace and equilibrium;
3. Moral and social health of the society;
4. Satisfying the sense of loving and being loved;
A man and woman are made mahram [q.v.] to one another through the following three ways: nasab (kinship); rezā’ (being suckled), and izdewāj (marriage). Marriage is of two types: perpetual and temporary. The former is one in which the time span of union is not determined, and the latter is the one in which the time span is set beforehand. For example, one may set the time span of the marriage to be one hour, one day, one month, one year or more. The woman one marries in this way is called mot’a or sīgha as well. Both types of marriage share many religious precepts and issues. For instance, in both types, the sīgha (the certain contract formula) must be recited, and the man and woman’s consent is not enough. They themselves may recite the formula or they may depute someone else to recite it on behalf of them. These two types vary in some other precepts, such as:
1. Unlike temporary marriage contract, not mentioning the mahr (dowry) in contract formula for perpetual marriage does not nullify it;
2. In perpetual marriage, the woman cannot go out without her husband’s permission; in temporary marriage, however, she may do so, unless this deprives the husband of his rights;
3. In the formula of perpetual marriage contract, it is not necessary to mention the time span; in temporary marriage, however, it is necessary.
Conditions of Marriage Contract
Question no. 209: What are the conditions of marriage contract?
- There are conditions for the marriage as follows:
1. The sīgha formula must be recited verbally not in a written form;
2. There must be the intention of reciting the marriage contract;
3. There must be continuity between reciting the formula and its acceptance (i.e. the statement made by the man or the woman or their deputies to the effect that he/she has accepted the contract);
4. The sīgha formula must be recited correctly;
5. The person reciting the formula must be wise and mature;
6. Both the man and the woman must be willing to marry.
 

Delay in Marriage
Question no. 210: If a young person is not able to marry because of financial problems, is it obligatory for him to marry anyway?
- Those who lack the necessary facilities to marry are excused, but they must avoid committing sins.272
 

The Bridegroom’s Ring
Question no. 211: Can the bride’s family purchase a gold ring for the bridegroom?
- No, it is not permitted to buy the gold ring.273
 

Gold
Question no. 212: What is the religious precept on men’s using gold as an ornament?
- Wearing gold, such as necklace, ring or watch is illicit for men.274
 

White Gold
Question no. 213: What is the religious precept on using white gold for men’s ornament?
- If it is made of gold, using it is not permitted, even if it may be of white color.275
 

Platinum
Question no. 214: What is the religious precept on using platinum for men’s ornament?
- There is no problem with using platinum.276
 

Time of Wedding Celebration
Question no. 215: Is it permitted to hold wedding celebrations in Muharram and Safar?
- If the ceremony is not accompanied by committing sins and desecrating Imam Hussein, there is no problem with holding it. However, it is better for the believers to preserve the sanctity of these days and avoid joyful actions.277
 

The Betrothal Period
Question no. 216: What is the religious precept on someone’s going out and to picnics with one’s fiancé (or fiancée)?
- It is not permitted until the legal marriage has not been contracted.278
 

Temporary Marriage Contract
Question no. 217: Suppose a man and woman, having contracted a marriage, note the invalidity of their marriage contract after intercourse; is this regarded as adultery and is the child born illegitimate?
- Considering their being unaware of the fact, this is not regarded adultery and the child is not illegitimate; but if they want to continue conjugal relation, they must recite the marriage formula once again in a correct form.279
 

The Time Span of a Temporary Marriage Contract
Question no. 218: What are the minimum and maximum time spans in temporary marriage contract?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: The time span must not exceed the lifetime of the couple or one of them; otherwise, the contract is invalid.280
 

Perpetual Marriage Contract
Question no. 219: Can a man contract a perpetual marriage before the end of the time span of the temporary marriage?
- No, it is not permitted; however, he may spare the remaining period and then contract the perpetual marriage.281
 

Arabic Formula of the Marriage Contract
Question no. 220: Is it necessary to recite the formula for marriage contract in Arabic?
- Based on obligatory precaution, it must be recited in correct Arabic.282
 

Error in Reciting the Marriage Contract Formula
Question no. 221: Is the marriage contract invalidated if the formula is recited with errors in one or two letters?
- If the meaning is changed, it is invalidated.283
 

Question no. 222: If a boy and girl want to recite the marriage contract formula themselves, how can they recite it?
- After setting the mahr (dowry) and the time span of the contract and observing the related conditions (such as the permission granted by the girl’s father), the girl should say, ‘zawwajtoka nafsī fil-moddat al-ma’lūma ‘ala-l mahr al-ma’lūm’, and the boy should say immediately, ‘qabelto al-tazwūja’.284
 

The Marriage Contract Session
Question no. 223: Is it necessary for the man and the woman to be present in the place where the formula is recited?
- No, it is not necessary.285
 

Legitimate Relationships
Question no. 224: Is there any religiously legal way other than marriage for a boy and girl to have legitimate relationships? Is there anything as ‘sisterhood-brotherhood’ contract formula in Islam?
- No, the only way is marriage, temporary or perpetual, and the sisterhood-brotherhood contract with a non-mahram [q.v.] person is not legitimate.286
 

Deputy for Marriage Contract
Question no. 225: Can a man recite the marriage contract formula on behalf of the woman?
- Yes, he can.287
 

Forced Marriage
Question no. 226: If the parents force their son or daughter to marry someone, is the marriage contract right?
- No, the contract is invalid in the case assumed above.288
 

Marriage Contract in Online Chat
Question no. 227: Is it permitted to contract a marriage through online chat?
- If they observe the conditions and the two parties hear each other clearly, and there is no long interval between what they say and hear, the marriage contract is ok.289
 

The Mo’ātātī (Mutual Giving) Marriage Contract
Question no. 228: Is the mo’ātātī marriage contract right? For example, is it right for a boy and girl to give one another rings without reciting the marriage contract formula?
- No, the mo’ātātī marriage contract is not right, and the formula must be recited.290
 

Father’s Permission
Question no. 229: Is it necessary for a virgin girl to have her father’s or her paternal ancestor’s permission for marriage? Is the marriage contract void without such permission?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Yes, there must be permission granted by the father or the paternal ancestor, and the marriage contract is void without it.291
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Based on obligatory precaution, there must be such permission, and the marriage contract is void without it.292
 

The Permission for Temporary Marriage
Question no. 230: Is it necessary in temporary marriage, like perpetual marriage, to have the father’s permission?
- Yes, there is no difference between the two types of marriage.293
 

The Contract Formula for Mahramiyyat
Question no. 231: We are two single colleagues; can we contract a temporary marriage without the girl’s father’s permission in order to have a legitimate relationship?
- No, the work and study relationships do not cause the father’s permission or that of the paternal ancestor to be dispensable.294
 

Difference in Religious Authority
Question no. 232: Suppose the man emulates a religious authority who regards the father’s permission unnecessary and the girl emulates another religious authority who regards his permission necessary; can the man contract the marriage without her father’s permission?
- In this case also the father’s permission is necessary.295
 

The Father’s Cordial Consent
Question no. 233: If the girl says that her parents are cordially consenting to her marriage, can the marriage be contracted accordingly without her father’s permission?
- The father’s permission must necessarily be stated, and the cordial consent is not enough.296
 

A Girl’s Marriage
Question no. 234: If a girl has been deflowered in childhood (through playing or sporting), is it necessary to have her father’s permission to marry her?
- The abovementioned girl is religiously considered a virgin.297
 

Divorcing a Girl
Question no. 235: If a virgin girl marries and is divorced without intercourse, is it necessary to have her father’s permission to marry her [the next time]?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Yes, his permission necessary.298
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: His permission is necessary based on the obligatory precaution.299
 

Underhand Marriage Contract
Question no. 236: If a girl’s father permits her to marry someone, can they contract a temporary marriage for more familiarity without informing the girl’s family?
- Here, he girl’s father’s permission is necessary for the temporary marriage.300
 

Father’s Death
Question no. 237: If a virgin girl’s father has died, who must give the permission for her marriage?
- In marrying a virgin girl, no one’s permission other than her father or her paternal ancestor is required.301
 

Relationships before Marriage Contract
Question no. 238: Can a wise and mature girl and boy talk together for marriage before informing their families?
- There is no problem with marriage proposal and talking before the marriage contract, if this is done not passionately and committing no sin.302
 

Father’s Objection
Question no. 239: Suppose a boy and a girl are religiously equal (kufw), but the girl’s father disagrees on their marriage; is the girl’s father’s consent necessary in that case? (Note that the girl is mature and right-minded, and needs to marry)
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the boy is religiously and conventionally equal to the girl, the father’s permission is not required.303
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If the boy is religiously and conventionally equal to the girl, and there is no other person equal to her, the father’s permission is not required.304
 

Father’s Consent
Question no. 240: Suppose a virgin girl’s guardian consents to her marriage but disagrees on the conditions (such as the amount of dowry, the time of marriage contact, etc.); if the boy and girl agree with one another, is the father’s permission necessary in that case?
- If the father agrees on the marriage but disagrees on the conditions, his permission is not required and the marriage contract is ok.305
 

Second Marriage
Question no. 241: Can a woman stipulate in the marriage contract that her husband may not have a second marriage?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: No, this condition is not valid; but she can stipulate that ‘if the man marries a second time, I can obtain my divorce representatively’.306
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Yes, this stipulation is valid; and if the man does not observe it, he has committed a sin.307
 

Prostitutes
Question no. 242: Is it right to contract a temporary marriage with prostitute women?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Such temporary marriage is highly undesirable; and if someone marries such a woman, it is necessary to prevent her from prostituting.308
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Based on an obligatory precaution, it is not permitted before she repents.309
 

Marrying Someone Who Does not Say Prayers
Question no. 243: Is it permitted to marry someone who does not say prayers?
- It is permitted but undesirable.310
NOTE: It is religiously undesirable to marry a fāseq (evildoer), and such a person is an evident example of fesq (evildoing).
 

Marrying a Sunnite Person
Question 244: What is the religious precept on a Shiite girl’s marrying a Sunnite man?
- It is religiously undesirable for a Shiite girl to marry a Sunnite man; but if she is afraid that marrying him would lead her to astray, it is not permitted.311
 

Marrying a Married Woman
Question 245: Suppose someone marries (temporarily or perpetually) a woman and later notices that she is married; what must he do?
- The marriage contract is void and he must separate from her, with no divorce being required.312
 

Marrying a Woman in the Waiting Period
Question no. 246: If someone, unknowingly, marries a woman in her waiting period (‘idda), does she become religiously forbidden to him forever?
- If both of them were unaware that marrying a woman in her waiting period is forbidden and they had intercourse (in the waiting period), she becomes forbidden to him forever; but if they had no intercourse, just the marriage contract is void and they may marry again after the waiting period is finished.313
 

Paying the Dowry (Mahr)
Question no. 247: If someone marries a girl believing she is virgin and after the marriages contract notices that she is not, is the contract right? Is the mahr reduced?
- The marriage contract is ok, and the difference between the mahrs of a virgin and a non-virgin girl in the same social status must be considered and the proportionate amount be subtracted from this girl’s mahr. For example, if the girl’s mahr is 100 gold coins and the mahrs for a virgin and a non-virgin girl equal to her are 80 and 60 coins respectively, then the husband can give her 75 coins.314
 

Question no. 248: If a man intends not to pay his wife’s mahr [q.v.], is the marriage contract right?
- Yes, the contract is ok and the man must pay the mahr [q.v.].315
 

Question no. 249: If the man sets a mahr [q.v.] that he is not able to pay, is the marriage contract invalid?
- No, the contract is ok, and the man must pay the mahr [q.v.].316
 

Mahr al-Sunna
Question no. 250: State the amount of Mahr al-Sunna (the dowry based on the Prophet’s Sunnah).
- Mahr al-Sunna is the amount of dowry set by the Holy Prophet for his wives and his daughter, Fatima. It is equal to 265.5 methqāl of silver (each methqāl being equal to 4.46 grams). The price differs from time to time.317
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Religious Precepts Concerning Husband and Wife
Rights of Husband and Wife

Question no. 251: Explain about the rights of husband and wife.
- “And from His signs is that He created for you mates from yourselves that you might find rest in them…” (The Quran, Rūm [30], 21).
There are a number of mutual rights and duties in the conjugal life. Wherever there is a duty, there is a right corresponding to it; just as wherever there is a right for someone, there is a corresponding duty as well. A husband and a wife have mutual duties as well as mutual rights, based on which they would have a good marital relationship. The bases of the family are mutual respect and affection as well as observing mutual rights. Imam Bāqer says, ‘whoever marries a woman, he must esteem and respect her.’318 And Imam Kāzem says, ‘The woman’s Jihad is attending her husband.’319
Conjugal rights are of two types: a) legal and obligatory rights, and b) moral and recommended rights.
The former are those rights protected by the law and the courts. The latter are those rights pertaining to a better concord and for having a better conjugal life.
a) A woman’s rights over her husband:
- Preparing food;
- Preparing clothes;
- Preparing necessary home appliances;
- Preparing house;
- Right of sexual intercourse;
b) A man’s rights over his wife:
- Taking husband’s permission for going out;
- Obedience;
- Removing unpleasant things;
- Adornment and cleanness;
- Taking husband’s permission for making vows and swearing
 

Woman’s Alimony
Question no. 252: Must the woman’s religious debts – khoms, kaffāra [qq.v.], etc. – be paid by her husband?
- No, it is not obligatory for the husband to pay such debts; the woman herself, if she has enough property, must pay them. Otherwise, she has no obligation in this regard.320
 

Extra Expenses
Question no. 253: Is it obligatory for a man to pay her wife’s expenses other than her alimony – extra expenses such as buying books, helping the poor, gifts, holding meeting for celebration, etc?
- No, it is not obligatory for the husband to provide his wife with such things.321
 

Living Expenses
Question no. 254: If a man does not pay his wife’s alimony at all or pays little, how can the woman get it?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If possible, she may take her living expenses from her husband’s properties without his permission.322
 

A woman’s Right
Question no. 255: If a woman has enough income, can the husband refrain from paying her alimony?
- It is obligatory for the man to pay her wife’s alimony, even though she may have enough income.323
 

A Fiancée’s Alimony
Question no. 256: Is it obligatory for a man to pay his fiancée’s alimony while she is in her father’s house?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: In this case, if the woman obeys the man, it is obligatory for the man to pay her alimony.324
Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it is customary, in their living area, for the girl’s family to provide her expenses, there is no obligation on the husband in this case. Otherwise, it is the husband’s duty to pay the alimony.325
 

A Woman’s Housing
Question no. 257: Can a woman refrain from living in a house where her husband’s parents live, demanding another house?
- It is obligatory for a man to provide his wife with proper housing proper for her status and according to customs in their area of living; there is no need to prepare a separate house, unless the separate house is proper for the woman’s status.326
 

Obedience in Residence
Question no. 258: Can a woman, after the marriage contract, refrain from living in a specific city?
- No, she has no right thereof, unless she has stipulated so in the marriage contract.327
 

Demanding One’s Mahr
Question no. 259: If a woman, having intercourse with her husband, demands her mahr [q.v.], what is the husband’s duty?
- If the man has nothing other than the house and the furnishings he needs according to his status, the woman cannot demand her mahr [q.v.]; rather, she must wait until he can pay his debt.328
 

Question no. 260: If the woman’s going out is not conflicting with her husband’s right (for instance, when the husband is at work), is it necessary for her to take his permission?
- Yes, the husband’s permission is necessary anyway.329
 

Question no. 261: I stipulated in the marriage contract that my husband should allow me to continue my higher education; now, can he prevent me from doing so?
- Ayatollah Sūstānī: No, you may continue your education without your husband’s permission.330
 

Question no. 262: Can a man prevent his student wife from going to university?
- If it has not been stipulated in the marriage contract that the woman can continue her education, she cannot go out without her husbands’ permission. Otherwise, she may continue her education.331
 

Question no. 263: If a man does not allow his wife, for any reason, to continue her education, can she disobey him in sexual matters?
- In this case, the woman has no right to do so.332
 

Husband’s Obstinacy
Question no. 264: If a husband prevents her wife from going out because of his obstinacy and for vengeance, is it necessary for the wife to obey him?
- Although this behavior on the part of the man is contrary to Islamic moral teachings, the woman must obey him anyway.333
 

Permission during the Engagement Period
Question no. 265: Is the husband’s permission necessary in the period when the wife is living in her father’s house?
- If it is not common, in their area of living, for a wife to take her husband’s permission in this period, taking his permission is not necessary; otherwise, she must take her husband’s permission for going out.334
 

Permission for Relation with Blood Relatives
Question no. 266: If someone prevents his wife from meeting her blood relatives, especially her parents, what must she do? Can she go to meet them without his permission?
- No, she cannot go to meet them without her husband’s permission; on the other hand, sela-ye rahem (relation with blood relatives) is not restricted to meeting them but it can be in the form of greeting and sending messages or making phone calls and the like.335
 

The Husband’s Consent
Question no. 267: If the woman just knows that her husband agrees with her going out, is this enough? Or she must take his permission?
- If she knows her husband’s consent, it is enough and there is no need to take his permission.336
 

Permission for Friday Prayer
Question no. 268: Is it necessary for the woman to take her husband’s permission for taking part in ritual ceremonies (like Friday prayer)?
- Yes, it is necessary to take the husband’s permission.337
 

Choosing Clothes
Question no. 269: Is it necessary for the woman to obey her husband in choosing clothes?
- No, the wife’s obedience is necessary just in conjugal matters and for going out; it is not necessary for other affairs.338
 

A Wife’s Obedience
Question no. 270: If the husband requests wearing specific clothing or adornment, is it obligatory for the wife to obey him?
- Yes, if this is in accordance with the husband’s enjoyments or if refraining from it causes the husband’s disgust. Otherwise, it is not obligatory.339
 

Permission for Recommended Fasting
Question no. 271: Is the husband’s permission necessary for recommended fasting?
- If a wife’s fasting conflicts with husband’s conjugal rights, she must take his permission based on the obligatory precaution. But if the husband forbids her to fast, she must obey even though it does not conflict with his conjugal rights.340
 

The Husband’s Properties
Question no. 272: Can a woman use her husband’s properties without his permission?
- No, she must take his permission.341
 

The Wife’s Properties
Question no. 273: Can a man prohibit his wife from using her own properties?
- No, the woman can use her own properties anyway she likes, and the husband’s permission is not needed.342
 

Conjugal Relations
Question no. 274: To what extent must a woman obey her husband in conjugal relations?
- If she has no religious excuse (such as menstruation, harm to her body, and the like), she must obey whenever her husband wants.343
 

Menstrual Period
Question no. 275: Can a husband and wife have enjoyments other than intercourse during the menstrual period?
- Yes, they can; however, it is religiously undesirable to derive enjoyments from the wife’s part of the body extending from her knee up to her navel; unless it is over her clothes.344
 

Anal Intercourse
Question no. 276: What is the religious precept on anal intercourse during the wife’s menstruation?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is severely undesirable.345
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the woman agrees, it is severely undesirable; but if she disagrees, it is not permitted based on the obligatory precaution.346
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Religious Precepts on Medicine
Non-Mahram Physician

Question no. 277: Is it permitted for a male physician to touch a woman’s body over her clothes if there is a female physician available?
- Touching a non-mahram [q.v.] woman’s body over her clothes is not illicit; however, if there is a probability of pleasure and corruption, it is not permitted.347
 

Non-Mahram Specialized Physician
Question no. 278: If there is a physician from the same sex and the treatment requires physical touch and looking, but it is probable that a specialized physician from the other sex is more skilled, what is the duty?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: This is no reason for a woman to refer to a male physician, unless there is a probable danger and harm.348
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the male physician is more specialized, there is no problem with referring to him.349
 

Medical Examination by a Non-Mahram
Question no. 279: What is the religious precept on touching a non-mahram [q.v.] patient for medical examination and treatment?
- If the physician from the same sex is not available, there is no problem with touching the patient for medical examination and treatment; however, the physician must confine himself to the necessary extent of touching.350
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the physician from the same sex is not available or the male physician is more specialized, there is no problem with touching the patient for medical examination and treatment; however, the physician must confine himself to the necessary extent of touching.351
 

Non-mahram Nurse
Question no. 280: Can a nurse look at a non-mahram [q.v.] patient’s body or touch it for detecting the pulse, blood pressure or the like?
- When there is a nurse from the same sex, it is not permitted for the nurses of the other sex to do so; however, if it is necessary, there is no problem with it.352
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If there is no nurse of the same sex to do such things, or the nurse of the other sex is more skilled, there is no problem with it.353
 

Infusion by a Non-Mahram
Question no. 281: What is the religious precept on infusion by a non-mahram [q.v.]?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If there is no one of the same sex to do the infusion and the patient needs immediate care, there is no problem with it.354
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If there is no one of the same sex to do the infusion or the person of the other sex is more skilled in infusion, there is no problem with it.355
 

Abortion
Question no. 282: Is there any problem with abortion in the first months of pregnancy?
- Yes, abortion after conception is not permitted anyway.356
 

Blood Money for Abortion
Question no. 283: How much is the blood money (diya) for abortion?
- The blood money is 20 methqāls357 of gold coin for notfa (drop of seed); 40 methqāls for ‘alaqa (clotted blood), and 60 methqāls for modgha (lump of flesh). If the embryo is formed of bones without any flesh, it is 80 methqāls; and if it is completely covered with flesh, it is 100 methqāls. If it has animated with soul, the diya is 1000 methqāls for a male and 500 methqāls for a female. It is noteworthy that the embryo is animated with soul when it is almost 4-months old.358
 

Illegitimate Embryo
Question no. 284: What is the religious precept on abortion of an illegitimate embryo?
- It is not permitted.359
 

Organs of a Brain Dead
Question no. 285: Is it religiously permitted to use the organs (such as kidneys, heart, etc.) of a brain dead person for saving other patients’ lives?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the person is not dead yet, using his organs is considered a murder and is not permitted.360
- Aytaollah Khāmena’ī: If using the person’s organ quickens his/ her death, it is not permitted. Otherwise, if the person has already permitted this or saving a respected person’s life is dependent on those organs, there is no problem with it.361
 

A Non-Muslim’s Organs
Question no. 286: Is it permitted to transplant a dead non-Muslim’s organs into a Muslim patient?
- There is no problem with it.362
 

Trading Kidneys
Question no. 287: In cases where transplanting is permitted, is it permitted to trade kidneys?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: In the above assumption, trading them is permitted; and it is permitted to take money for the kidney.363
Ayatollah Sīstānī: In the abovementioned assumption, it is permitted to take money for the kidney.364
 

Blood Money for Cutting an Organ
Question no. 288: Is there any blood money for cutting a dead Muslim’s organ for transplanting? Who must receive this blood money?
- If the dead person had not willed when he was living, the one who cuts the organ must pay the blood money. This money is not divided among the inheritors, but it must be spent as charity on behalf of the dead person.365
 

Purity of the Transplanted Organ
Question no. 289: What is the religious precept on ritual purity of a transplanted organ?
- If it becomes a part of the living person’s body, it is ritually pure.366
 

Autopsy
Question no. 290: What is the religious precept on autopsy for detecting crimes and murderers?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If revealing the truth is dependent on it, there is no problem with it.367
 

Autopsy of a Non-Muslim’s Body
Question no. 291: What is the religious precept on autopsy of a non-Muslim’s dead body?
- There is no problem with autopsy of a non-Muslim’s dead body.368
 

Selling Blood
Question no. 292: Can a person take money for giving blood to patients needing blood?
- Yes, it is permitted [provided that it has no considerable harm for the giver].369
 

Artificial Insemination
Question no. 293: What is the religious precept on artificial insemination of a woman with sperms of her own husband? Is the child born in this way is a legitimate one?
- There is no problem with the action itself, provided that the illicit things (such as looking and touching a non-mahram [q.v.]) are avoided; and the child born in this way is a legal child for that couple.370
 

A Stranger’s Sperm
Question no. 294: What is the religious precept on entering a stranger’s sperm into a woman’s womb if her own husband is barren? Whose is the child born in this way?
- This action is religiously illicit, and if a child is born it would belong to the stranger man and the woman bearing it.371
- Ayatollah Khmena’ī: There is no problem with the action itself, provided that the illicit things (such as looking and touching a non-mahram [q.v.]) are avoided; and if a child is born it would belong to the stranger man and the woman bearing it.372
 

Using Narcotics
Question no. 295: What is the religious precept on using narcotics?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Using narcotics is not permitted.373
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Using narcotics must be avoided based on the obligatory precaution.374
 

Narcotics and Medical Treatment
Question no. 296: What is the religious precept on using narcotics as a medical treatment?
- If a specialized reliable physician diagnoses this as the only way of medical treatment, there is no problem with using it (just the necessary amount).375
NOTE: Anything considered illicit religiously can be used as a medical treatment under the above conditions.
 

Question no. 297: Are hashish and opium religiously impure (najes)?
- No, they are pure.376
 

Smoking Cigarettes
Question no. 298: What is the religious precept on smoking cigarettes?
- If it afflicts considerable harms, it is not permitted.377
 

Lip Skin
Question no. 299: What is the religious precept on removing or chewing the pieces of skin of the lip or other parts of the body?
- Little pieces of skin of the lip or other parts of the body – which are easily removed and are falling – are religiously pure.378
 

Blood in the Mouth
Question no. 300: If the teeth bleed and the blood is mixed with the saliva, what must we do? Must we wash the mouth?
- If the blood is so little that it dissolves when mixed with the saliva, it is religiously pure and there is no problem with taking it in.379
 

Ulcer Blood
Question no. 301: Is the blood on a dried ulcer religiously impure?
- Yes, it is religiously impure even if it is dried.380
 

Blood from Infusion
Question no. 302: Sometimes, while infusing or taking blood from a patient, a little amount of blood is leaked; can we clean the place with a piece of cotton smeared with alcohol?
- Blood, even a little amount, is religiously impure and must be washed with water.381
 

Major Ablution for Touching a Dead Body
Question no. 303: If we touch a dead body while anatomizing a dead body and we do not know whether the person was Muslim or infidel, is it necessary to perform a major ablution (ghosl)?
- Performing a major ablution for touching e dead body is obligatory, whether the person was a Muslim or infidel, unless you know the dead person is a Muslim who has already been ritually washed.382
 

A Dead’s Bones
Question no. 304: What is the religious precept on touching the bare bones (without flesh) of a dead person by nursing students?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If the dead body has not been ritually washed, one must perform an ablution for touching the dead body.383
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the bone has no flesh on it, there is no need to perform the ablution for touching it.384
 

Touching a Dead Body
Question no. 305: If someone touches a dead body before ritually washing it, do his/her body and clothes become religiously impure? Or must he/she perform a major ablution (ghosl)?
- If the person’s body or clothes are wet, they become impure and must be cleaned. If they are dry, it is recommended to wash them.385
 

Question no. 306: If one touches a dead body with a glove, is it necessary to perform major ablution for touching the dead body?
- No, performing a major ablution is not necessary in that case.386
 

Alcohol
Question no. 307: Are the industrial alcohol and the alcohol used for infusions religiously impure?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If you are not sure they contain intoxicating alcohol, they are religiously pure.387
Ayatollah Sūstānī: No, they are religiously pure.388
 

Question no. 308: What is the religious precept on various types of alcohol altogether?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Any alcohol, if it contains intoxicating matter, is religiously impure.389
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: All types of alcohol are religiously pure; however, if they contain intoxicating matter, they are religiously impure based on recommended precaution.390
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Religious Precepts on Education
Medical Education
Question no. 309: In some hospitals and medical-educational centers, the students would checkup and examine different parts of the female patients’ bodies. Considering the fact that this is a part of their educational curriculum, what is the religious precept on this?
- If saving the lives of the patients, even if in future, is dependent on learning medical techniques, such things are permitted at the necessary level.391
 

Educational Photos
Question no. 310: What is the religious precept on looking at naked photos in medical books which are necessarily studied by students?
- If it is without any intention of pleasure or probability of committing a sin, there is no problem with it.392
 

Anatomizing a Muslim’s Corpse
Question no. 311: Is it permitted to anatomize a Muslim’s corpse to teach students or discover new things in science?
- If no non-Muslim corpse is available and saving Muslims’ lives is dependent on new medical discoveries (even if in future), there is no problem with anatomizing a Muslim’s corpse (as far as it is necessary).393
 

Teaching Music
Question no. 312: What is the religious precept on teaching and learning to play musical instruments?
- Teaching and learning to play instruments specific to lahw (frivolity) is not permitted, but if it is a common instrument (used both for lahw and non-lahw) for legitimate and licit purposes is permitted.394
 

Looking at the Educator’s Face
Question no. 313: What is the religious precept on looking at an educator’s face while teaching?
- There is no problem with it if it is done with no intention of pleasure and no probability of committing a sin.395
 

Female Classmates
Question no. 314: Considering the fact that university classes are coeducational, what is the religious precept on looking at non-mahram [q.v.] girls?
- If it is non-intentional and with no intention of pleasure, there is no problem with it.396
 

Cheating
Question no. 315: What is the religious precept on cheating in exams?
- Cheating in exam is not permitted.397
 

Cheating with Consent
Question no. 316: What is the religious precept on cheating if the other party is contented?
- This makes no difference.398
 

Cheating in Employment Exams
Question no. 317: Does cheating in exams for employment make the future income be religious doubtful?
- If the person has the necessary skill for the job and the employment rules have been observed, there is no problem with the payments received.399
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Religious Precepts on ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’
Importance of Enjoining Good

Question no. 318: Explain about the importance and necessity of ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil’.
- “You are the best community that has been raised for mankind; you enjoin good and forbid evil…” (The Quran, Āl-e Imrān [3], 110).
‘Good’ (ma’rūf) is what is considered good by religion and reason and ‘evil’ (monkar) is what is considered bad and undesirable by religion and reason. So, what is good – including cultural, doctrinal, economic, devotional, moral, political, physical, mental, etc. – is ma’rūf; and mokar includes all undesirable things. Thus, amr bel-ma’rūf means ‘enjoining good’ and nahy ‘anel-monkar means forbidding evil.
The best way to find the instances of ma’rūf and monkar is referring to religious law. Some ma’rūfs are ‘piety, goodness, trust in God, penitence, reciting the Quran, thanking God, counsel, prayer, good conduct, patience, perseverance in the way of religion, fearing God, prodigality, thinking, forgiveness, controlling one’s anger, Jihad, daily prayer, fasting, etc.’; Some of the monkars are ‘infidelity, hypocrisy, friendship with infidels, oppression, misusing Muslims’ Public Treasury, disguising the truth, trading with religion, bowing before the enemies, distrust, lying, backbiting, slander, promoting conflict, seeking presidency, jealousy, breaking off connections with relatives, etc.’
The obligation of ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil’ has been present in all religions and is not specific to Muslims. This precept appears among Israelites. God says in the Holy Quran, ‘the people of the scripture are not all alike… some of them enjoin good and forbid evil and are among good people…’ (The Quran, Āl-e Imrān [3], 113-114). Loqmān advises his son to perform this obligation. (The Quran, Loqmān [31], 17). God orders Moses and Aeron to advise Pharaoh gently. (The Quran, Tāhā [20], 43-44).
‘Enjoining good’ and ‘forbidding evil’ are among the most important, the best and the highest religious obligations in Islam; some jurists have considered them among the necessities of religion. In various Quranic verses and transmitted traditions, these two duties have been stressed on using elegant phrases. Imam Ali (PBUH) says, ‘all good conducts and (even) Jihad compared to enjoining good and forbidding evil are as spit compared to a vast sea.’400 Imam Bāqer says, ‘Bad people are those who stultify ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil.’401
It is necessary to note some points here:
1. This religious obligation is amongst the public duties, and it must be observed by all Muslims. In fact, this obligation is not limited to police force, judicature and other state organizations; rather, it is a duty for all members of the society. ‘Enjoining good’ and ‘forbidding evil’ are Kefā’ī Wajebs (general obligations); that is, if a group of people do it, enforcing ma’rūf and removing monkar, others are exempted from doing it.
2. There is no difference between men and women as to doing these obligations, and both have a duty to do it.
3. One of the stages of ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil’ is practical confrontation with the sinful persons. However, according to the religious authorities, this must be done with the permission of the jurists and authorities of the Islamic state and is not allowed without their permission.402
4. This obligation has some conditions without which doing it is not obligatory for the person; in fact, it may be religiously illicit for some persons in some cases.
 

Stages of ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil’
Question no. 319: What are the stages of ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil’?
- Various stages of this obligation are as follows:
1. Disapproval by heart
2. Disapproval by tongue
3. Practical action
 

Conditions of ‘enjoining good’
Question no. 320: What are the conditions for ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil’?
- They are as follows:
1. The person doing the task must know the good and evil;
2. It should be likely that the task would be effective;
3. The task should not have any harm;
4. The person refraining from goodness and doing evil insists on them.
 

Question no. 321: Is it obligatory for the person who does not know the religious precepts and methods of ‘enjoining good’ to enjoin good?
- No, it is not obligatory; however, he/she must learn the conditions and issues related, so that he/she may not make any mistake.403
 

Instances of ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’
Question no. 322: What instances of ma’rūf and monkar must be enjoined and forbidden as a religious obligation?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is obligatory for obligatory and illicit deeds, and recommended for recommended and undesirable deeds.404
Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is obligatory for obligatory and illicit deeds, and recommended for recommended things.405
 

Question no. 323: Can someone who commits sins enjoin good or prevent others from committing sins?
- Yes, it is obligatory for him to enjoin good and forbid evil (if conditions are present). However, if he wants his sayings to be effective, he must act according to what he says.406
 

Question no. 324: Some of our relatives are negligent of daily prayers, fasting and other religious obligations; their properties are also dubious or illegitimate and they would not accept any advices. Is it permitted to have contacts with them?
- There is no problem with having contacts with them, especially if this leads to their guidance; you may use their food unless you are certain that it is prepared from the illegitimate properties.407
 

Religious Impurity
Question no. 325: If someone’s carpet is religiously impure and he notices others putting their wet feet on them, what must he do?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is not necessary for him to tell them the truth.408
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If he is the cause for this impurity, he must tell the truth under two conditions: a) the impurity may reach the foods and drinks they use; b) the persons would pay attention to him. However, if it is likely that they would not pay attention to him, telling them the truth is not necessary.409
 

Enjoining good and Forbidding Evil for Parents
Question no. 326: If someone’s parents commit sins, is it right to prevent them from evil?
- It is obligatory for the person to prevent them from committing evil. However, he must try to do this gently, and this is not disrespectfulness. If this is not effective, the person would have no other duty.410
 

Repeating ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’
Question no. 327: Is it enough to do ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil’ just once or we must repeat it?
- If it is likely to be effective, it must be repeated.411
 

Preventing One from Eating Impure Food
Question no. 328: If one notices someone else eating religiously impure food, is it necessary for him to tell the person?
- No, it is necessary for him to tell the truth.412
 

Mice’s Feces
Question no. 329: If the host, while eating food, notices the impurity of the food (such as seeing the mice’s feces in it), is it necessary for him to tell the guests about it?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Yes, he must tell them.413
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it is likely that the guests would pay attention to him, he must tell them; but if he knows they would not pay attention to him, saying them is not necessary.414
 

Expedient Lie
Question no. 330: What is the religious precept on telling an ‘expedient lie’?
- Telling ‘expedient lies’ as is common among the people – which is in fact based on benefits – is religiously illicit. The instances of ‘expedient lie’ are clear in Islam, such as protecting a believer’s life or settling conflicts among Muslims.415
 

Backbiting
Question no. 331: Must one who has backbitten someone else try to win the other party’s consent?
- No, this is not obligatory; however, he must repent for it.416
 

Question no. 332: Aare we allowed to speak of someone’s physical defects (such as shortness)?
- There is no problem with stating someone’s apparent or physical attributes which others are aware of, provided that this is not done to make fun of the person.417
 

Question no. 333: Is it permitted to speak of issues that are not resolved if not discussed, such as an educator’s teaching method while he is absent?
- There is no problem with stating the educators’ weaknesses before the related authorities or for counseling. Generally speaking, where the expediency is more than the negative effects of backbiting, there is no problem with it.418
 

Breaking off Relations
Question no. 334: Who are the relatives with whom one is not permitted to break off?
- They are one’s father and mother, brother and sisters and their children, uncles and aunts and their children.419
 

Question no. 335: If someone’s brother or other close relatives do not perform their religious duties (such as daily prayers, fasting, etc.) and they even do not pay attention to pieces of advice, can he break off relations with them?
- No, he cannot break off relations with them for this reason, unless temporary breaking off leads to their being awakened; in this case, breaking off relations is necessary for ‘forbidding evil’.420
 

Relations with Close Relatives
Question no. 336: How is sela-ye rahem (relation with close relatives) realized? Is it obligatory to traffic with them?
- Sela-ye rahem is not restricted to trafficking with close relatives. Rather, it may be done through gifts, hosting, messages, letters, making phone calls, greetings, etc. Thus, it is enough to have no breaking off with them.421
 

Dress of Fame
Question no. 337: What is meant by ‘dress of fame’?
- Dress of fame (lebās-e shohrat) is an unusual piece of clothing for the person due to its material, color, design or other features, which draws attention of others, making the person an eye-catcher or notorious.422
- It is any piece of clothing improper for a believer, making him/ her unsightly.423
 

Question no. 338: What is the religious precept on wearing a ‘dress of fame’?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Wearing dresses that make the person notorious and eye-catcher is religiously illicit based on obligatory precaution.424
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Wearing such dresses is not illicit, unless it defames the person.425
 

Wearing the clothes of the Other Sex
Question no. 339: What is the religious precept on wearing the clothes of the other sex?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Based on obligatory precaution, it is not permitted for one to wear clothes specific to the other sex if one wears them as one’s usual dressing.426
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Based on obligatory precaution, it is not permitted for one to wear clothes specific to the other sex if this turns the person into one of the other sex.427
 

Dressing at Home
Question no. 340: Is there any difference between the religious precepts on wearing the clothes of the other sex at home and outside?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: There is no problem with it as long as the person has not worn it as one’s usual dressing.428
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If this turns the person into one of the other sex, it is not permitted based on obligatory precaution.429
 

Shaving one’s Beard
Question no. 341: What is the religious precept on shaving one’s whole beard with a razor?
- Shaving one’s beard, whether with a razor or electric shaver, is religiously illicit based on obligatory precaution.430
 

Question no. 342: Is it permitted for an adolescent to shave the little hair on his face?
- If the hair on the face is so little that it is not considered beard, there is no problem with shaving it.431
 

Goatee Beard
Question no. 343: Is it enough for one to have a goatee?
- No, it is not enough, and this is the same as shaving the whole beard.432
 

Gambling Devices
Question no. 344: If some gaming devices are considered gambling devices in a city but are not so in another city, is it permitted to play with them?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If something is considered a gambling device in local people’s view, playing with it is not permitted; otherwise, it is permitted.433
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If something is considered a gambling device in one of the two cities and was used to be considered so in both cities in the past, playing with it is illicit.434
 

Computer Games
Question no. 345: What is the religious precept on gambling individually with a computer?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Gambling is not permitted, whether the other party is a person or a computer.435
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is not permitted based on obligatory precaution.436
 

Playing Chess
Question no. 346: What is the religious precept on playing chess with no ‘winner and loser’ and just for reinforcing one’s memory and thought?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it is really not considered as a gambling device anymore in public view, there is no problem with it.437
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Playing chess is illicit, and the abovementioned motivation has no effect on this precept.438
 

Question no. 347: If it is proved for one that the chess is not considered a gambling device in the present day, what is the religious precept on playing it with no winner and loser?
- If it is definite that chess is not considered a gambling device in public view anymore, there is no problem with playing it.439
 

Sport Awards
Question no. 348: Is it permitted, in sport matches, for the persons or groups other than the participating parties to determine awards?
- In the case assumed above, there is no problem with it.440
 

Betting
Question no. 349: Is any game played with betting religiously illicit?
- Any game played with betting is religiously illicit except horse racing and shooting.441
 

Backgammon
Question no. 350: State the religious precept on playing backgammon.
- If it is considered a gambling device, playing it is illicit even if it is done with no winner and loser.442
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is illicit.443
 

Playing Cards
Question no. 351: What is the religious precept on playing cards?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Playing with gambling devices, even if with no winner and loser, is religiously illicit.444
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it is played with a winner and loser, it is illicit; but with no winner and loser, if it is generally considered a gambling device by the local people, playing with it is not permitted based on obligatory precaution.445
 

Billiards
Question no. 352: In view of widespread leaning towards playing billiard even in some educational centers, state the religious precept on playing it.
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it is generally considered a gambling device, playing with it is not permitted, even if it is played with no winner and loser.446
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it is generally considered a gambling device by the local people, playing it with a winner and loser is not permitted; and playing it with no winner and loser is also not permitted based on obligatory precaution.447
 

Keeping Gambling Devices
Question no. 353: What is the religious precept on keeping gambling devices?
- Keeping gambling devices is not permitted and they must be ruined.448
 

Sculpturing
Question no. 354: What is the religious precept on making sculptures of men or animals in the form of a torso or bas-relief on a wall?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: There is no difference between sculpture of the whole body or a torso, and both of them are religiously problematic.449
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: There is no problem with making partial sculptures.450
 

Trading Statues
Question no. 355: What is the religious precept on trading and keeping statues of living things?
- There is no problem with trading and keeping them.451
 

Caricatures
Question no. 356: What is the religious precept on drawing caricatures of persons if it is derisive?
- Defaming and scoffing at a believer are illicit as a general rule.452
 

Drinking Wine
Question no. 357: What is the religious precept on wine as regards the impurity and illicitness? Is there any difference between a little amount and a large amount of wine?
- Wine is religiously impure and drinking it is religiously illicit. There is no difference between a little amount and a large amount of it, and drinking even one drop of it is absolutely illicit. This is among the major sins, even if the person is not intoxicated.453
 

Question no. 358: Is it sinful to drink any intoxicating liquid, and would it cause legal punishment (hadd)?
- Yes, if the liquid is intoxicating, it is illicit to drink it and it is among major sins; and anyone who drinks it would receive legal punishment.454
 

Question no. 359: Is any intoxicating liquid religiously impure and illicit to drink?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it has originally been a liquid, it is religiously impure based on obligatory precaution. Anyway, it is illicit to drink that liquid.455
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it has originally been a liquid, it is religiously impure based on recommended precaution. Anyway, it is illicit to drink that liquid.456
NOTE: If the intoxicating liquid is formed from solving a solid thing (such as cannabis and hashish) in water, it is not impure, even though this solution may be intoxicating (because it has not originally been a liquid); it is, however, illicit to use that solution.
****
Religious Precepts on House
Cleanness and Purity

Question no. 360: Is there any Quranic verse on cleanness and purity?
- We read in the Holy Quran, ‘And Allah loves the purifiers.’ (The Quran, Tawba [9], 108).
Islam is the religion of cleanness and purity. Therefore, purity has its special status in the religious precepts of Islam; it is regarded as a part of faith, just as impurity and filth of many najes (religiously impure) things is inherently hated by normal humans. Of course, there are some things whose impurity are hidden and may not be readily understood by human beings; however, Islam has declared their being impure (such as dog, pig and wine). Besides, Islam has a specified program for purifying impurities.
It is worth noting that in view of the fact that all people are involved in dealing with purities and impurities, Islam has determined the related precepts in an easy way and according to the human’s nature, not forcing people to scrutinize and inquire on this. Islam has even prohibited people to be obsessed with purifying, since this may lead the person to mental disorders and depression, making the life bitter for him. For further information, we go on reviewing some of the related precepts.
 

Washing an Impure thing
Question no. 361: How can we purify an impure thing with qalīl 457water?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If the impure thing is a watertight thing (such as one’s body and solid things), it must be washed twice after the impure matter has been removed (with water or other things); and if it is something such as a piece of cloth or a carpet, it must be squeezed after each time of washing so that the water comes out of it.458
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the impure thing is one’s body or clothes, it must be washed twice after the impure matter has been removed (with water or other things); otherwise it is enough to wash it once. Anyway, it is necessary to do squeezing and moving when purifying clothes, carpets and the like to take the remaining water out.459
 

Question no. 362: How can we purify an impure thing with kor460 water such as water from water pipe?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is enough to wash it once after removing the impure matter; and for the clothes, carpets, and the like, it is necessary – based on the obligatory precaution – to take out the remaining water by squeezing or moving.461
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It must be washed twice after removing the impure matter; and for the clothes, carpets, it is not necessary to do squeezing or moving.462
 

Question no. 363: If something becomes impure with something other than the urine (e.g. blood), how can we purify it with qalīl [q.v.] water?
- If the impure thing is a watertight thing (such as one’s body and solid things), it must be washed once after the impure matter has been removed (with water or other things); if it is something such as a piece of cloth or a carpet, it must be squeezed after each time of washing so that the water comes out of it.463
 

Question no. 364: If something becomes impure with something other than the urine (e.g. blood), how can we purify it with kor [q.v.] water?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: It is enough to wash it once after removing the impure matter; and for the clothes, carpets, and the like, it is necessary – based on the obligatory precaution – to take out the remaining water by squeezing or moving.464
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It must be washed twice after removing the impure matter; and for the clothes, carpets, it is not necessary to do squeezing or moving.465
 

Color of Impurity
Question no. 365: If the color of impurity remains after washing a piece of clothing, is it impure?
- No, it is pure.466
 

Question no. 366: Can water full of lather purify an impure thing?
- Yes, water does not become mozāf 467 with lather.468
 

Question no. 367: Can an automatic washing machine – which washes clothes several times – purify an impure thing?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it removes the impurity itself, it purifies the impure thing then, whether it washes the clothes while connected to the water pipe, or does so after it is disconnected from it.469
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it removes the impurity itself and the water (connected to the pipe) inside the machine reaches the clothes and all parts inside the machine and then comes out, it purifies the impurity.470
 

A Little Blood
Question no. 368: Is a little blood (less than a derham) religiously pure?
- No, it is religiously impure; however, there is no problem if that amount of blood stains someone’s body or clothes while saying prayers.471
NOTE: A derham is a coin almost the size of a fingernail.
 

Carpet and Moquette
Question no. 369: How can one purify a moquette which is glued to the ground and has become impure with urine?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If we pour, after removing the impure matter, water from a water pipe on it once, it will be purified; and it is obligatory precaution to take out the remaining water by squeezing.472
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If we pour, after removing the impure matter, water from a water pipe on it twice, it will be purified; and we must take out the remaining water by squeezing.473
 

Purifying Something with Rain
Question no. 370: Is an impure carpet purified under the rain shower?
- If the impure matter is removed from it, it will be purified.474
 

Purifying Something with Sunlight
Question no. 371: Is an impure cloth or carpet purified with sunlight?
- No, sunlight, under specific conditions, can purify only fixed objects such as doors, walls and windows; but clothes, carpets and the like, which as movable, are not purified with sunlight.475
 

Purifying the House and Furniture
Question no. 372: If the walls or some furniture become impure, is it obligatory to purify them?
- No, purifying them is not obligatory; it is just necessary for the person to purify his clothes for saying prayer and the place where he/ she prostrates.476
 

Impure Dishes
Question no. 373: If some dishes or tools become impure and then sold to someone, is it necessary to tell him about it?
- If it is certain that the tool would cause the person’s food, drink, or water for his ablution to become impure, he must be informed.477
 

Selling Impure Clothes
Question no. 374: If some clothes become impure, is it necessary to tell the truth when we want to sell them or give them as gifts?
- No, for clothes, it is not necessary to inform the person of its impurity, since the purity of the clothes is not a real provision.478
 

Impurity of Edible Things
Question no. 375: If some amount of solid oil or tomato paste becomes impure with a mouse’s waste matter, can we remove the impure part to use the rest?
- There is no problem with this as for the solid oil; but it is not permitted to do this for tomato paste, unless it is so solid that it is not fluid.479
 

Eating Impure Food
Question no. 376: If one’s mouth is bleeding while eating food, is it permitted for him to eat the morsel in his mouth?
- It is illicit to eat the impure morsel; but if the blood amount is so little that dissolves in the saliva, it is pure and can be swallowed.480
 

Raisin
Question no. 377: Is it right to eat food in which boiled raisin or date has been used?
- There is no problem with it.481
 

A Cat’s Saliva
Question no. 378: Is the food tasted by a cat impure?
- No, it is not impure.482
 

Feeding a Baby
Question no. 379: Is it permitted to feed a baby with an impure meal?
- Yes, it is permitted.483
 

Bloody Egg
Question no. 380: What is the religious precept on the blood in some eggs?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: That blood is not impure; however, eating it must be avoided based on recommended precaution. If the blood is in the yolk, as far as it is not mixed with the white matter, the white matter is pure.484
Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: The blood is pure, but eating it is illicit. And if it is dissolved by mixing the egg, it can be eaten then.485
 

Gold and Silver Dishes
Question no. 381: Is it permitted to use gold and silver dishes?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: There is no problem with keeping and using them for decoration; but using them for eating and drinking is illicit.486
Ayatollah Sīstānī: Eating and drinking in gold and silver dishes is illicit, and based on obligatory precaution, it is also illicit to use them for other purposes; but there is no problem with keeping and using them for decoration.487
 

Gilded and Plated Dishes
Question no. 382: Is it permitted to use gilded or plated dishes?
- No, there is no problem with it.488
 

Gold Pen-Case or Perfume-Case
Question no. 383: What is the religious precept on using gold pen-case, gold perfume-case and the like?
- There is no problem with using them, though it is better to avoid using them.489
 

Silk
Question no. 384: Is it right to say prayer on a silk carpet?
- Yes, it is right.490
 

Question no. 385: What is the religious precept on wearing silk dresses for men and women?
- If it is 100% silk, wearing it is illicit for men; but for women, there is no problem with wearing it.491
 

Question no. 386: Sometimes, I wear my husband’s clothes for a while at home; is it permitted?
- Yes, there is no problem with it.492
 

Purifying Urine Outlet
Question no. 387: How many times must one wash the urine outlet after urination?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is enough to wash it once after removing the urine itself (whether with water from water-pipe or with qalīl [q.v.] water).493
- Ayatollah Khāmen’ī: If washing is done with water-pipe, washing it once is enough after removing the urine itself; but if qalīl [q.v.] water is used, it must be washed twice based on obligatory precaution.494
 

Sprays of Impure Water
Question no. 388: Sometimes, while purifying an impure thing, the water from pipe is sprayed off the impure matter; what is the religious precept on these sprays?
- In view of the fact that the water pipe is connected to the kor [q.v.] water, its sprays are pure, unless there is the impure matter in it.495
Religious Precept on Financial Matters
 

Importance of Financial Matters
Question no. 389: Explain about people’s rights and financial matters?
- “Allah commands you that you restore deposits to their owners…” (The Quran, Nesā [4], 58).
Issues related to people’s rights are of two types:
1. Financial matters (such as debts, injustices, khoms, zakāt [qq.v.], …)
2. Non-financial matters (such as backbiting, slander, outrage, …)
In this section, just the religious precepts related to the first type rights are discussed. Financial rights are of special importance in Islam, and they must be observed with great care. Even if a small part of others’ properties are wasted and they are not contented, penitence and regret are of no use. Imam Sādeq says, ‘The first drop of a martyr’s blood is the atonement for his sins, but his debts have no atonement other than paying back.’496
 

Question no. 390: I took someone’s money when I was a child and I cannot tell him the truth; what is my duty? Can I give it as alms on behalf of him?
- You must give him the money in any possible way. It is not necessary to tell him about it. You may even give it to him through someone else or deposit it in his account. Anyway, it is not enough to give alms on his behalf.497
 

Question no. 391: If we have taken someone’s money and now we have no access to him, what is our religious duty?
- If you have no hope to find the owner, you must give it to a needy person on behalf of him; and it must be done with a religious authority’s permission based on obligatory precaution.498
 

Question no. 392: If we have taken someone’s money and now he has died, what is our religious duty?
- If you know the heirs, you must give them the money. If you have no hope to find them, you must give it to a needy person on behalf of him; and it must be done with a religious authority’s permission based on obligatory precaution.499
 

Others’ Insurance
Question no. 393: Is it permitted to use others’ insurances?
- It is against the rules and would result in the user’s being religiously indebted.500
 

Question no. 394: A few years earlier, I borrowed one of my friends’ books, but I didn’t see him afterwards. I don’t have even his address. What must I do now?
- If you have no hope to find him, you must give it to a needy person on behalf of him; and it must be done with a religious authority’s permission.501
 

Question no. 395: Is it permitted to eat others’ food and give them the price afterwards?
- No, it is not permitted without the owner’s permission.502
 

The Loan’s Interest
Question no. 396: If someone who has borrowed some money gives the interest with content, is this religiously illicit?
- If the borrowing is done with the stipulation to give interest, it is illicit and the two parties’ content does not make it licit. But if, without this stipulation, the borrower himself gives more than the money borrowed, there is no problem with it; rather, it is recommended to do so.503
 

Question no. 397: I have lent someone some money to be given back one year later. Can I subtract some part of it to take the rest sooner?
- You may have mutual compromise to subtract some part and take the rest in cash.504
 

Question no. 398: If the debtor cannot pay back his debt, is it permitted for the creditor to take back the money? Can he take interest for delay in payment?
- If the debtor has nothing other than the house, the furniture, and other things he needs, it is illicit for the creditor to claim the money; rather, he must wait until the debtor is able to pay the debt, and it is illicit to take interest for delay in payment.505
 

Question no. 399: What is Radd-e Mazālem?
- The word mazālem is the plural form for mazlama (meaning oppression); it refers to those things taken from someone by oppression, and terminologically it means those properties in someone’s proposal, whose owners are not known. He must then give them to the needy persons with a qualified mujtahid’s permission.506
 

Question no. 400: If the debtor spares to give back his debt, can the creditor appropriate his own share of the money?
- If his credit is certain and the debtor is able to pay the debt but refuses to do so, the creditor may appropriate his share of the money.507
 

Found Property
Question no. 401: What is the religious precept on finding something of little value?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it has no sign to find its owner (such as a bank note), he may take it for himself, whether its value is less than a derham (Arabic silver coin) or not.508
 

Question no. 402: What is the religious precept on something of much value found by someone?
- If its value is equal to or more than one derham [q.v.] and it has a sign to find its owner, it must be proclaimed (by a written sign for example) up to one year.509
 

Question no. 403: Something has been found and must be proclaimed for one year; can we give it as alms on behalf of its owner after two weeks if we have no hope to find its owner?
- If you have no hope to find its owner, you may give it as alms on behalf of its owner and there is no need to wait for one year.510
 

Question no. 404: What is the religious precept on taking part in trade project of pyramid companies (such as Gold Quest)?
- Taking part in any endless network marketing with pyramid scheme is not permitted.511
 

Question no. 405: What must we do with the money obtained through trading in pyramid scheme?
- If one knows the original owner, he must give back the money; otherwise, he must give the money to the needy on behalf of the owners with a qualified mujtahid’s permission.512 NOTE: Ayatollah Sīstānī and Khāmena’ī consider taking the mujtahid’s permission an obligatory precaution.
Religious Precepts on Banking
 

Bank Loans
Question no. 406: Is it permitted to use bank loans given for a specific purpose (such as buying, building or repairing a house) for other purposes?
- No, one cannot use it for other purposes.513
 

Borrowing
Question no. 407: Someone has lent some money ten years ago. Can he get more because of a decrease in the money value in this period?
- No, he is not permitted to get more.514
 

Money Interest
Question no. 408: Can one give others some money to get interests on a monthly basis?
- If he deposits the money under one of the religious contracts with specified conditions, there is no problem with it. But if it is given as a ‘loan’ and the interests are stipulated therein, it is usury and religiously illicit.515
 

Licit Usury
Question no. 409: In which cases is the usury religiously permitted?
- In three cases: a) A Muslim’s getting interest from an infidel who is not under Islam’s protection; b) usury between a father and his children; c) usury between a man and his wife.516
 

Co-partnership (Mozāreba)
Question no. 410: If I want to give someone some money to get a fixed percent of interest on a monthly basis, how can I do that without usury?
- If you give some money to someone in order to get a fixed amount of interest, it is usury and illicit. However, there are some ways to avoid usury:
1. You may delegate the money receiver to buy something and sell it to someone (even himself) on credit. Every month, he may give you a fixed amount currently, and at the end, he returns the rest including the original amount.517
2. You may delegate him to trade with your money legitimately. He would give you all the benefits obtained and would get some money as the fee, i.e. proxy right.
3. You may have a co-partnership (mozāreba) contract with him. You give the asset and he will work for you. The benefits are divided between you two in proportions specified in the contract. In mozāreba, it is necessary to specify the equities and the percentage of the interest going to each one.518
 

Buying and Selling Foreign Exchanges
Question no. 411: What is the religious precept on buying and selling foreign exchanges in cash or on credit?
- There is no problem with buying and selling foreign exchanges.519
 

Question no. 412: Is it permitted to sell new bank notes or changes at a higher price?
- Yes, it is permitted.520
 

Question no. 413: What is the religious precept on selling a dated check in cash at a lower price?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: There is no problem with selling it to the debtor by the creditor, but it is not right to sell it to a third person.521
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If the seller is the creditor of the subscription to be paid by the drawer, there is no problem with selling it in cash at a lower price.522
 

Official Bribery
Question no. 414: What is the religious precept on bribing officials to facilitate one’s affairs?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Paying money to the staff in offices will lead to corruption in offices, which is religiously illicit. Getting it is also religiously illicit, and the person is not permitted to use it.523
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: Bribing is permitted for getting one’s right except in judgment. Receiving it, however, is not permitted for the person who has the duty to do a service.524
Religious Precepts on Non-Muslims’ Affairs and
Those Living Abroad
 

People of the Scripture (Ahl ul-Ketāb)
Question no. 415: Are the People of the Scripture (Ahl ul-Ketāb) religiously pure or impure?
- No, they are religiously pure, but it is better (recommended precaution) to avoid them.525
 

Question no. 416: If there is no reliable way to know the right direction of the kiblah, what must one do?
- If there is no reliable way to know it, it is enough for him to guess it in any ways he can.526
 

Question no. 417: If I am in a place where there is no way to find the kiblah and there is no way to guess it, what is my duty?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: It is enough to say your prayer in one direction; but if there is enough time, it is better (recommended precaution) to say your prayer in four directions.527
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If there is enough time, it is an obligatory precaution to say your prayer in four directions.528
 

Islamic Veiling Abroad
Question no. 418: Is it obligatory to observe Islamic veiling in travels to non-Muslim countries?
- Yes, it is obligatory for a Muslim woman to observe complete Islamic veiling before a non-mahram [q.v.] man, whether he is Muslim or non-Muslim, in an Islamic country or a non-Islamic country.529
 

Question no. 419: What is the religious precept on looking at non-Muslim women who are unveiled in non-Muslim countries?
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Based on obligatory precaution, it is not permitted even without intention of pleasure or fear to do illicit actions.530
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: There is no problem with it if it is done without intention of pleasure or fear to do illicit actions.531
 

Shaking Hands with Non-Muslims
Question no. 420: What is the religious precept on shaking hands with non-Muslim women?
- It is not permitted to shake hands with non-Muslim women, whether they are warlike infidels (Kāfar-e Harbī) or People of the Scripture (such as Jews or Christians).532
 

Looking at Non-Muslims
Question no. 421: What is the religious precept on looking at naked photos of non-Muslims?
- If this looking is done with intention of pleasure, it is illicit; and based on obligatory precaution, it is not permitted even without such an intention or fear to do illicit action.533
 

Marriage to Non-Muslims
Question no. 422: Is it permitted to have temporary marriage to women among People of the Scripture (i.e. Jews or Christians)?
- Yes, temporary marriage to them is permitted.534
 

Question no. 423: What is the religious precept on a Muslim woman’s marriage to a non-Muslim man?
- A Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim man, whether he is among the People of the Scripture or not, and whether the marriage is temporary or perpetual.535
 

Question no. 424: If one wants to marry a Muslim girl whose father is a Christian, is it necessary to have her father’s permission?
- No, an infidel (even one’s father) has no authority over a Muslim’s girl.536
 

Question no. 425: If one wants to marry a Christian or Jewish girl, is it necessary to have her father’s permission?
- If the father’s permission is not a necessary condition in their religion, it is not necessary to have his permission.537
 

Chat with Non-Muslim Women
Question no. 426: What is the religious precept on chatting with non-Muslim women and speaking of sexually arousing things?
- It is illicit.538
 

Associating with an Alcoholic Person
Question no. 427: Is it permitted to associate with an alcoholic non-Muslim?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: There is no problem with associating. But sitting at a table where wine is served is not permitted based on obligatory precaution; and eating there is illicit, even if the meals are licit.539
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: There is no problem with associating. But sitting at a table where wine is served is not permitted; and eating there is illicit, even if the meals are licit.540
 

Islamic Slaughter of Animals
Question no. 428: There are some stores in non-Islamic countries that sell Islamic food with a note stating this; what is the religious precept on buying things there?
- It is not enough to have a note stating the Islamic slaughter; but if the shopkeeper is a Muslim and says that the slaughter has been Islamic, his statement is reliable.541
 

Leather Goods
Question no. 429: Is it permitted to buy leather goods from a non-Muslim?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: If it is probable that the leather is from an animal slaughtered according to Islamic rules or under the supervision of a Muslim, it is permitted to buy it and the transaction is ok; otherwise, the transaction is invalid.542
 

Question no. 430: If one touches, with a wet hand, the leather shoes or chairs coming from non-Muslim countries, does he become impure?
- If it is likely that the animal has been slaughtered according to Islamic rules, it is pure.543
NOTE: Artificial leather is pure; and if we do not know whether the leather is natural or artificial, it is pure in this case.
Religious Precepts on Copyright
 

Copyright
Question no. 431: Does producing software generate any right for the producers?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: No, it does not generate any right for them.544
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Yes, based on obligatory precaution, it produces a right for them.545
 

Question no. 432: What is the religious precept on copying software?
- There is no problem with it.546
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Based on obligatory precaution, copying without the original producer’s permission is not permitted.547
 

Question no. 433: If the software seller (the original producer) stipulates that the software is not copied, what is the religious precept on copying it?
- In this case, it is not permitted.548
 

Question no. 434: What is the religious precept on copying software without the producer’s permission if it is against the law?
- If there is a law therein, it must be observed.549
 

Question no. 435: If copying software leads to a loss to the producer, will it result in religious liability?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: No, it does not result in liability.550
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Yes, the loss must be retrieved.551
 

Question no. 436: What is the religious precept on copying software already unlocked by someone else, available in the market?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: There is no difference between the two [normal software and unlocked software] as far as the religious precepts are concerned; anyway, there is no problem with it.552
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: There is no difference between unlocking software and copying it. In both cases, copying and using it is not permitted based on obligatory precaution.553
 

Question no. 437: What is the religious precept on writing software for personal use?
- If there is no law therein, there is no problem with it.554
 

Foreign Software
Question no. 438: Is there any difference between software produced by foreign and domestic producers as to the religious precept on copying?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: No, there is no difference between them.555
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: If it has been produced at home, the producer’s permission is necessary based on obligatory precaution; but if it has been produced abroad, it is liable to the related contract.556
 

The Producer’s Consent
Question no. 439: If we do not know whether the software producer accedes to copying, what is our duty?
- Ayatollah Sīstānī: There is no problem with copying and using it.557
- Ayatollah Khāmena’ī: Based on obligatory precaution, the producer’s permission and consent must be certified.558


Terminology
NOTE: Here, only the most frequently used terms are defined, and other terms has been defined in the text where they have been used once.
Ahl ul-Ketāb= People of the Scripture. In Islamic terminology, it means the Jews and the Christian.
Fetr celebration= The celebration of the end of Ramadan. It is on the first day of Shawwal, which is called the ‘Fetr’ day.
Fetra Zakāt (or Fetriya)= The alms paid to a needy person by a Muslim for himself and all those who are considered his dependents on Fetr day [q.v.].
Harām= illicit, religiously forbidden. The action that must not be done or the thing that must not be used is called Harām.
Heyz= menstruation.
‘Idda= Waiting period. It is the period during which a divorced woman or a woman whose husband has died must avoid marriage and must wait to have another marital relation.
Ihtiyāt Mostahab= Recommended precaution. When a religious authority (a Mujtahid or Marja’) proclaims a ‘recommended precaution’, his imitator (the person who follows him) may do accordingly or leave the practice.
Ihtiyāt Wājeb= Obligatory precaution. When a religious authority (a Mujtahid or Marja’) proclaims a ‘recommended precaution’, his imitator (the person who follows him) may do accordingly or refer to another religious authority.
Ijtehād= legal reasoning; what a mujtahid or a religious expert does to identify the religious precept on any affair using the Quranic verses and the transmitted Islamic traditions.
Kaffāra= Literally ‘compensation’; in jurisprudence, the kaffāra for not fasting in Ramadan is as follows: fasting for 2 months providing that 31 days are successive; feeding 60 poor persons to make them full, or he may give each of them one modd (about 750 grams) of wheat or barley or the like.
Khoms= One-fifth religious tax which must be paid by a Muslim to his religious authority. Any financial benefit one acquires has a khoms to be paid under specific conditions. See section on Khoms.
Kor [water]= The amount of water equal to 480 kgs at least. The ‘kor’ water can fill a container with 3.5 spans wide, 3.5 spans long, and 3.5 spans deep.
Mahr= Dowry. The property a man specifies, in the marriage contract, to give his wife.
Mahram= (plural= Mahārem); literally, it means congenially related. In Islamic law, a man and woman are made mahram to one another through the following three ways: nasab (kinship); rezā’ (being suckled), and izdewāj (marriage). Those who are not mahram to one another are subject to specific Islamic laws and limitations for looking at, speaking to or having relations with one another. See the related sections.
Marja’ Taqlīd (or merely Marja’)= Religious authority. The mujtahid whose decrees one follows. The follower is then called a moqalled (i.e. imitator).
Modd= about 750 grams.
Mokallaf= A person who is religiously obliged to do religious practices according to a certain religious authority’s decrees.
Moqalled= Literally, the imitator. A moqalled is a person who follows the decrees declared by a specific religious authority or marja’.
Mostahab= What is religiously recommended to do.
Mozāf [water]= Water extracted from something such as fruits or mixed with something else (such as sherbet) in a way that it is not considered water any more.
Najes= What is ‘religiously impure’ and must be avoided touching and using.
Nefās= a woman’s state of bleeding after childbirth.
Non-mahram= One who is not a Mahram [q.v.].
Qadr night= Qadr night is the special night when, it is said, God specifies the individuals’ fate and that of all worldly affairs for one year. It has been strongly recommended that Muslims remain awake at these nights up to the dawn to pray, recite the Quran, and do other rituals prescribed. It is on one of the nights among 19, 21, and 23 of Ramadan (not exactly specified anyway).
Qalīl [water]= The amount of water less than ‘kor’ [q.v.]
Wājeb= What is religiously obligatory to do.
Zakāt= Religious alms. In jurisprudence, it means a one-tenth religious tax that must be paid by a mokallaf [q.v.] to his specified religious authority. The things whose zakāt must be paid are as follows: wheat, barley, date, raisin; sheep, camel, cow; gold and silver.


1 These are the Quran, the Sunna, reason and consensus
2 Lesān al-Arab, s.v. Jahd; al-Tanqīh fī Sharh al-‘Orwat al-Wothqā, al-Ijtehād wal-Taqlīd,p. 20
3 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 5; Khāmena’ie, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 25.
4 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 3; Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 25.
5 Sīstānī, Ta’līqāt Alā ‘Orwa, question 13, 33; Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 18.
6 It means the moqalled may refer to another mujtahid whose knowledge is less than his own religious authority but more than other religious authorities. If the second authority has declared an obligatory precaution in the same case, the person may still refer to a third authority with knowledge less than the second one but more than others, and so on.
7 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 7 and 8.
8 ‘Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā,vol.1 , Chapter on Taqlid, question no. 63
9 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 9; Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 23.
10 Farā’ed al-Usūl, vol. 1, p. 374-79; al-Tanqīh fī Sharh-e ‘Alā al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, Kitab al-Ijtehād wal-Taqlīd, question 16, p. 195-202.
11 Makārem Shīrāzī, Tafsīr Nemūna, vol. 4, p. 291.
12 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 248; Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 102.
13 ‘Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 1, Af’āl al-Wuzū, question no. 47.
14 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 102.
15 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 247.
16 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 251; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
17 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 253; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
18 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 140; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
19 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
20 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 297.
21 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 242; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
22 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 291; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
23 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 141; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
24 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 104; www.sistani.org, s.v. ABLUTION.
25 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 104, 114, 140; www.sistani.org, s.v. ABLUTION.
26 Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 112.
27 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 299.
28 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 301; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s office.
29 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 303; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s office.
30 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 320.
31 Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 1, proposition 25, s.v. conditions of ablution.
32 Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 1, s.v. Conditions of and recommendations for ablution.
33 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 323; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
34 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 330; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
35 Tafsīr-e Nemūna, vol. 4, p. 294.
36 It should be noted that some religious authorities have proclaimed an obligatory precaution in the order of washing the body parts.
37 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 389; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 187.
38 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 185.
39 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 386.
40 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 379.
41 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s office.
42 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 191.
43 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 365.
44 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol.1 , proposition 365; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, precepts on ritual impurity.
45 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol.1, propositions 73, 348; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s office.
46 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol.1, propositions 346; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 180.
47 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, propositions 346; Sīstānī, Ta’līqāt ‘Alā al-’Orwat al-Wothqā; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 171.
48 Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 1, recommendations on ghusl-e jenābat. Proposition 6.
49 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
50 Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 1, Precepts on Ghusl.
51Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, ch. on ghusl-e jenābat.
52 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 353; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 190.
53 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 346; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 180.
54 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
55 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
56 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
57 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 790; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
58 www.sistani. org; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
59 www.sistani. org; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 788.
60 According to Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, it is obligatory precaution to hit the hand palms on the soil once again and do the same thing once again in a reversed order, i.e. left hand first and right hand last. Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 209.
61 Tafsīr Nemūna, vol. 3, p. 443.
62 Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question no. 215; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
63 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 701.
64 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question no. 209.
65 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
66 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 723.
67 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office; Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 680.
68 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office; Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 727.
69 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 726; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions no. 202, 204.
70 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
71 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 698.
72 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 157.
73 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 319.
74 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, 164.
75 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 319.
76 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
77 These prophets are as follows: Ismā’īl, Loqmān, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad (PBUT).
78 Osūl-e Kāfī, vol. 3.
79 The Quran, Tāhā (20), 14.
80 The Quran, Ra’d (13), 28.
81 The Quran, ‘Ankabūt (29), 45.
82 The Quran, Baqara (2), 21.
83 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 792; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 432.
84 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 802; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 430.
85 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 803.
86 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 803.
87 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1022, 1023.
88 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 885; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
89 A piece of clean dust on which one puts his forehead while prostrating.
90 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 885; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
91 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1060.
92 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1071.
93 The formulations “sobhānallāh-e wal-hamdo lellāh-e wa lā Ilāha illallāho wa-llāho akbar” are called Tasbīhāt ‘Arba’a.
94 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1005; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 483.
95 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1105; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
96 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 374.
97 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 886.
98 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 880; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 388.
99 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1155; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
100 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1168-9.
101 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1185-6; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 518.
102 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1373; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 743.
103 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1388; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
104 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1418; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
105 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1533; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 709.
106 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 781.
107 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, s.v. precepts of the Friday Prayer ; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 606, 611.
108 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition no. 1335.
109 Ajwabat al-Istefta’āt, question no. 659.
110 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition no. 1307.
111 Ajwabat al-Istefta’āt, question no. 645.
112 Sistani, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, i. Salāt al-Mosāfer, al-Khāmes; Sistani.org, s.v. traveller’s prayer.
113 Menhāj al-Sālehīn, proposition 884.
114 Eating and drinking; sexual intercourse; masturbation; attributing lies to God or the Prophet or his successors; inhaling some turbid dust or smoke up to one’s throat; dipping one’s head into the water; remaining in the status of jenābat (ritual impurity), Heyz (menstrual impurity), or nefās (mother’s bleeding after childbirth) up to the call to morning prayer; enema with a fluid; and vomiting.
115 TafsĪr-e Nemūna, vol. 1, p. 633.
116 There are many traditions transmitted on this point; see Man Lā Yahzoroho-l Faqīh, vol. 2, trad. 1766-69.
117 The Holy Prophet says, ‘Fast to be healthy.’
118 Quoted from Tafsīr-e Nemūna, vol. 1, p. 632.
119 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1725-1729; Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 2.
120 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Ta’līqāt ‘Alā Orwa, ch. 4, proposition 1; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 763.
121 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 1573-1583.
122 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Ta’līqāt ‘Alā Orwa,vol. 2, invalidators; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
123 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 1608-1610.
124 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1595; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
125 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1596.
126 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, proposition 1023; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
127 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1583.
128 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, Kaffāra; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question no. 822.
129 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn,iii, proposition 428.
130 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, 1705-09.
131 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
132 Towzī al-Masā’el, proposition 1621.
133 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, after the proposition 1004.
134 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, Kaffāra al-Sawm.
135 Towzī al-Masā’el, 1703, 1715.
136 Towzī al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, 1730.
137 Qadr night is the special night when it is said God specifies the individuals’ fate and that of all worldly affairs for that year. It has been strongly recommended that Muslims remain awake at these nights up to the dawn to pray, recite the Quran, … It is on one of the nights among 19, 21, and 23 of Ramadan.
138 Man Lā Yahzoroho-l Faqīh, ii, ch. Ghosl fī al-Layālī al-Makhsūsa, p. 159.
139 Orwat al-Wothqā, ii, al-Sawm, ways to prove the moon crescent, proposition 1.
140 Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 837, 839.
141 Sistani, Towzī al-Masā’e, proposition 1731.
142 Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 842-3.
143 Orwat al-Wothqā, ii, al-Sawm, ways to prove the moon crescent, proposition 1.
144 Ayatollah Sistani’s Office.
145 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
146 Towzī al-Masā’el, proposition 1730.
147 Man Lā Yahzoroho-l Faqīh, ii, ch. Al-Fetra, p. 183.
148 Ibid, p. 183
149 Kāfī, iv, ch. Al-Fetra, p. 174.
150 In a tradition transmitted in interpreting the verse ‘qad aflaha man zakkāhā’, it is said that ‘tazkiyya’ there means Fetra alms. Mostadrak of Wasā’el al-Shī’a, vii, ch. Fetra alms, p. 137.
151 Wasā’el al-Shī’a, ix, ch. Fetra alms, p. 138.
152 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’āt, questions 859, 860, 863.
153 Orwat al-Wothqā, ii, Fetra alms, ch. 2, proposition 12.
154 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1948; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’āt, question 880.
155 There is however disagreement among the religious authorities as to paying the khoms of what we earn as a gift, prize, etc. This will be mentioned in the following questions.
156 Orwat al-Wothqā, ii, p. 72.
157 Sayyed Abol-Qāsem Khū’ī, Mostanad-e Orwat al-Wothqā, Kitāb al-Khoms, p. 196; Sayyed Mahmūd Hāshemī Shāhrīdī, Kitāb al-Khoms, ii, p. 45; Mohammad Taqī Modarresī, Ahkām al-Khoms, p. 16.
158 Wasā’el al-Shī’a, IV, ch. 1, trad. 4.
159 Wasā’el al-Shī’a, ch. Mā Yajebo Fīh al-Khoms, and ch. on Anfāl.
160 Nāser Makārem Shīrāzī, 180 Questions and Answers, p. 423-25; idem, Ta’līqāt alā al-Orwa, Kitāb al-Khoms, p. 392.
161 Wasā’el al-Shī’a, vi, Kitāb al-Khoms, ch. 2, trad. 12.
162 Wasā’el al-Shī’a, vi, chs. Qesmat al-Khoms, ch. 1, trads. 4, 8.
163 ‘What is specific to God is for the Prophet; He would spend it where he knows good.’ Ibid, chs. al-Anfāl, ch. 1, trad. 12.
164 It is mentioned in Imam Reza’s letter to one of his companions. Ibid., chs. al-Anfāl, ch. 3 trad. 2.
165 In the abovementioned letter, it has been written, ‘Khoms is our help in establishing God’s religion.’ Ibid., chs. al-Anfāl, ch. 3 trad. 2.
166 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition no. 1757; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 996.
167 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 974; www.sistani.org.
168 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1757; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 997.
169 Towzī al-Masā’el, proposition 1752; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question no. 995.
170 Ayatollah Sīstānī, al-Masā’el al-Montakhaba, proposition 588.
171 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
172 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 850.
173 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1753.
174 www.sistani.org, khoms, no. 8.
175 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 860, 987.
176 www.sistani.org, khoms, no. 10.; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 908.
177 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 904, 922.
178 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
179 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, proposition 1219; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 902, 956.
180 www.sistani.org, khoms, no. 8.
181 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 860. 978.
182 Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, vol.2, Ketāb al-Khoms, proposition 71.
183 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition no. 1757; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 998.
184 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1834; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1003, 1004.
185 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 995.
186 Ayatollah Sīstānī, al-Masā’ela al-untakhaba, proposition 593.
187 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 996, Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
188 Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 2, ch. Al-Khoms, proposition 67.
189 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 1769.
190 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
191 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1026.
192 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 856; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
193 See Imam Khomeini, al-Makāseb al-Moharrama, vol. 1, p. 198-224.
194 See The Quran, Loqmān (31), 6; Forqān (25), 72; Mo’menūn (23), 3; Hajj (22), 30; Qesas (28), 55.
195 The Prophet (PBUH) says, ‘Ghenā is the way to fornication.’ (Behār al-Anwār, vol. 76, ch. 99, al-Ghenā).
196 In the 6th verse of chapter Loqmān of the Quran, among the factors misleading humans from divine path is ‘lahw al-hadīth’, and lahw is what which attracts one so much that distract him from another important task, and this is called ghenā in Islamic traditions. (Wasā’el al-Shī’a, vol. 12, ch. 99)
197 See Tafsīr Nemūna, vol. 17, p. 24.
198 Imam Khomeini, al-Makāseb al-Moharrama, vol. 1, ch. On al-Ghenā.
199 The religious authorities Sīstānī, Tabrīzī, Wahīd, and Makārem agree that lahwī music is illicit, though it lacks the feature of tarab.
200 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1164; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
201 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1127, 1146; www.sistani.org.
202 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1140.
203 www.sistani.org.
204 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1131, 1135, 1155; www.sistani.org.
205 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1143, 1147, 1157; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
206 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1152, 1155; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
207 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
208 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1127, 1129, 1154.
209 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1127, 1154; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, p. 20.
210 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1165, 1210; Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 2055, 2067, 2068.
211 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1140; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, proposition 1271.
212 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1064, 1138, 1158;
213 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1180, 1181.
214 www.sitani.org.
215 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1181.
216 www.sitani.org.
217 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1168.
218 www.sistani.org.
219 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1171, 1174; www.sistani.org.
220 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1169; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
221 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1145; www.sistani.org.
222 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1145; www.sistani.org.
223 Murtedā Mutahharī, Mas’ala-ye Hejāb, p. 21.
224 It should be noted that the certain date has not been recorded in exegesis and history; however, in view of the fact that these verses appear in the chapters Ahzāb and Nūr, and the chapter Ahzāb was revealed before Nūr and after Āl-e Imrān, as well as the fact that according to Tafsīr Nemūna, Āl-e Imrān was revealed in 2nd- 3rd AH, it can be well estimated that Ahzāb was revealed in 4th -5th AH. This is also supported by the content of this chapter of the Quran.
225 The Quran, Nūr (24), 31; Ahzāb (33), 33, 59.
226 The Quran, Nūr (24), 31; Ahzāb (33), 59
227 Mostadrak al-Wasā’el, vol. 14, ch. 70.
228 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 559, 618; www.sistani.org.
229 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2435.
230 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 438; www.sistani.org.
231 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol.3, al-Nekāh, proposition 18.
232 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, questions 621, 667; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
233 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 543.
234 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Ta’līqāt Alā al-‘Orwa, al-Setr, proposition 1.
235 www.sistani.org.
236 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, questions 477, 564.
237 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1145; www.sistani.org.
238 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 782; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
239 Ayatollah Khāmena’īs Office; www.sistani.org.
240 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 646; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
241 Al-‘Orwat al-Wothqā, vol.2, al-NeKāh, propositions 39, 41.
242 Ibid, propositions 31, 39; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 782.
243 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, al-Nekāh, proposition 29; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
244 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 651, 779; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
245 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, questions 627, 639.
246 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2445.
247 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, questions 645, 1586; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
248 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, questions 479, 515; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, al-Nekāh, proposition 16.
249 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1196; www.sistani.org.
250 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
251 Behār al-Anwār, vol. 101, p. 40.
252 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 525; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol.2, al-Nekāh, proposition 28.
253 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol.2, al-Nekāh, proposition 28.
254 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 525.
255 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol.2, al-Nekāh, proposition 28.
256 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 487.
257 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
258 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, al-Nekāh, proposition 23.
259 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition no. 2439.
260 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, questions 483, 1427.
261 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1203; www.sistani.org.
262 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1192; www.sistani.org.
263 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1187.
264 www.sistani.org, Film, question 4.
265 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1182; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Slehīn, vol. 2, al-Nekāh, proposition 23.
266 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 482.
267 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
268 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
269 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1189.
270 The Holy Prophet says, ‘No building has been made more favorite for God in Islam than the building of marriage’ (Wasā’el al-Shī’a, vol. 14, p. 3).
271 Wasā’el al-Shī’a, vol. 14, p. 5.
272 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
273 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 447.
274 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 444.
275 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 832; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 444.
276 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 443; www.sistani.org.
277 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
278 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
279 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, proposition 92, 233; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
280 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, religious precepts on marriage.
281 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 40; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 1113.
282 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2370; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 40.
283 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2371.
284 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2368; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
285 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
286 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
287 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2367; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
288 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2370; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 70.
289 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 30; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
290 Ayatolla Khāmena’ī and Sīstānī’s Offices.
291 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, al-Nekāh, proposition 70.
292 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 798.
293 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, Awliyā’ al-‘Aqd, proposition 69.
294 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 86; www.sistani.org.
295 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Ta’līqāt ‘Alā ‘Ūrwa, al-Taqlīd, proposition 55, and Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2376.
296 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 87; www.sistani.org.
297 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, Awliyā’ al-‘Aqd, proposition 1237; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 84.
298 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, al-Nekāh, proposition 70.
299 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 798.
300 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
301 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2376; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 55.
302 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2376.
303 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2377.
304 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 54.
305 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
306 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 7.
307 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 333.
308 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 164.
309 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, al-Nekāh, proposition 261.
310 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 2; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 20.
311 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 215.
312 Al-’Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 2, al-Nekāh, ch. 2, al-Sāb’a and al-Sāmena.
313 Towzūh al-Masāe’l, proposition 2401; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 122.
314 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, proposition 285; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
315 Towzūh al-Masāe’l, proposition 2446; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
316 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
317 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 287; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
318 Wasā’el al-Shī’a, vol.3, ch.5.
319 Forū’ Kāfī, vol.5, p. 9.
320 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, proposition 428; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
321 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, proposition 420; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
322 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2412.
323 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, proposition 433; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
324 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
325 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, proposition 415.
326 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 30; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
327 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2451; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
328 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2277; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
329 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2412; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, propositions 337, 338.
330 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
331 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
332 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
333 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
334 Ayatollah Sūstānī’s Office.
335 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 338; Ayatollah Sūstānī’s Office.
336 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2062; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
337 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
338 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, proposition 339, 340; Ayatollah Sūstānī’s Office.
339 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, proposition 350; Ayatollah Sūstānī’s Office.
340 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Ta’līqāt ‘Alā al-‘Orwa, Types of Fasting, type 7.
341 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
342 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
343 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2412; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
344 Orwat al-Wothqā, Precepts on Menstruation, part 7.
345 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 425.
346 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 450.
347 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, al-Nekāh, proposition 16.
348 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1303.
349 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, al-Nekāh, proposition 21.
350 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2441.
351 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, al-Nekāh, proposition 20.
352 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2441.
353 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, al-Nekāh, proposition 20, 21; www.sistani.org.
354 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1303.
355 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 3, al-Nekāh, proposition 21.
356 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1263.
357 Each methqāl is equal to 4.46 grams.
358 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
359 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1206; www.sistani.org.
360 www.sistani.org.
361 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1291.
362 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, Religious Precepts on Transplatation, proposition 64.
363 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1290.
364 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, Religious Precepts on Transplatation, proposition 62.
365 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1288; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, Religious Precepts on Transplatation, propositions 58, 61.
366 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, Religious Precepts on Transplatation, proposition 59; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
367 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1281.
368 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1280; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, Religious Precepts on Autopsy, proposition 56.
369 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, Religious Precepts on Transplatation, proposition 63; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
370 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1271, 1277; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, Religious Precepts on Artificial Insemnation, proposition 69.
371 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, Religious Precepts on Artificial Insemination, proposition 65.
372 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1271, 1277.
373 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1403.
374 www.sitani.org.
375 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1404; www.sitani.org.
376 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 111; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
377 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1408; www.sitani.org.
378 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 91.
379 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, vol. 1, proposition 100; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
380 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
381 Al-‘Orwat alwothqā, vol. 1, On Impurities, section 5.
382 Al-‘Orwat alwothqā, chapters on ‘Major Ablution for Touching a Dead Body, and ‘Washing a Dead Body’.
383 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 229, 252.
384 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 529.
385 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
386 Al-‘Orwat alwothqā, chapters on ‘Washing a Dead Body’.
387 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 304, 307.
388 www.sistani.org.
389 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 111, 2633.
390 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 111, 2633.
391 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
392 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 1313. Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
393 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1280, 1312.
394 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1144; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 11.
395 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 509.
396 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 487.
397 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 2468; www.sistani.org.
398 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
399 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
400 Nahj al-Balāgha, epigrams, epigram no. 374.
401 Wasā’el al-Shī’a, vol. 11 (new ed.), p.392.
402 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, proposition 1773; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1054.
403 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, proposition 1271; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
404 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
405 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, proposition 1271.
406 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, propositions 1272, 1275; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
407 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1057, 1068; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
408 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
409 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 142, 144.
410 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1068; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
411 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
412 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 143; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
413 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
414 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 142, 145.
415 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
416 www.sistani.org; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
417 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
418 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
419 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
420 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1057; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
421 www.sistani.org; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
422 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1361;
423 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
424 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 550.
425 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 845.
426 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1372.
427 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 849.
428 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1368.
429 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 846.
430 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1416, 1421; www.sistani.org.
431 www.sistani.org.
432 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1413; www.sistani.org.
433 www.sistani.org.
434 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1126.
435 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, vol. 5, question 1154.
436 www.sistani.org.
437 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
438 www.sistani.org.
439 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1115; www.sistani.org.
440 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
441 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1123; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 22.
442 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1125.
443 www.sistani.org.
444 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1116.
445445 www.sistani.org, sv. gambling.
446 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 1116, 1119, 1125.
447 www.sistani.org, sv. gambling.
448 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 11; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
449 www.sistani.org.
450 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1221.
451 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1221; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 2, proposition 18.
452 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
453 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 111, 2633; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
454 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2633.
455 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 301.
456 Ayatollah Sīstānī, inTowzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 111, 2633.
457 ‘Qalīl’ literally means ‘little’, and in jurisprudence, it is the amount of water less than ‘kor’[q.v.] and is not connected to a water source.
458 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
459 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 160, 170.
460 ‘Kor’ is the amount of water equal to 480 kgs at least. The ‘kor’ water can fill a container with 3.5 spans wide, 3.5 spans long, and 3.5 spans deep.
461 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 71.
462 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 159.
463 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 163; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
464 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 71.
465 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 159.
466 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
467 Water extracted from something such as fruits or mixed with something else (such as sherbet) in a way that it is not considered water any more.
468 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
469 www.sistani.org.
470 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 292.
471 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 848; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
472 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, questions 71, 73.
473 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 159.
474 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 37; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
475 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 191; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
476 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 300; All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
477 Ayatollah Sīstānī, al-Ta’līqa ‘Ala al-Orwa, s.v. IMPURITY, proposition 32.
478 Ayatollah Sīstānī, al-Ta’līqa ‘Ala al-Orwa, s.v. IMPURITY, proposition 32.
479 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 129; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
480 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 100, 141; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
481 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 114.
482 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
483 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 141; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
484 Ayatollah Sīstānī, in Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 98.
485 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 269; idem, Isteftā’, proposition 992.
486 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
487 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Menhāj al-Sālehīn, vol. 1, proposition 493.
488 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 230; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
489 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 233.
490 Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 1, proposition 29.
491 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 834, 836; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
492 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1219; www.sistani.org.
493 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 66.
494 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 98.
495 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 177; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
496 Man Lā Yahzoroho-l Faqīh, vol. 3, p. 183, trad. 3688.
497 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
498 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 2279; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, 1559.
499 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 2279; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, 1559.
500 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
501 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, propositions 2279; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
502 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
503 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2283.
504 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2168.
505 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2276; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
506 Lesān al-‘Arab; Dehkhodā’s Dictionary.
507Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1765; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
508 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2564, 2565.
509 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2566.
510 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2572.
511 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
512 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
513 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1790; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
514 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1772; www.sistani.org.
515 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1774; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
516 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2080.
517 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2108.
518 ‘Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 2, Kitāb al-Mozāreba; Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, the precepts on Haqq al-Wekāla (fee).
519 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el, proposition 26; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1603.
520 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1603, 1604; Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el, banking operations.
521 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1950.
522 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Towzīh al-Masā’el, proposition 28.
523 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1246, 1247.
524 www.sistani.org.
525 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 313; Ayatollah Sīstānī, in Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 106.
526 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 782; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
527 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 784.
528 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 368.
529 al-‘Orwat al-Wothqā, vol. 1, s.v. SETR.
530 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, questions 509, 582, 1399.
531 Ayatollah Sīstānī, in Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2434; www.sistani.org.
532 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā, question 488; www.sistani.org.
533 Ayatollah Sīstānī, Ta’līqāt ‘Alā al-‘Orwa, Ahkām al-Takhallī, proposition 2; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1314.
534 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2397; Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 145.
535 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2397.
536 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 65; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
537 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 100; Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
538 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
539 Ayatollah Sīstānī, in Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2634.
540 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1425.
541 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Isteftā’, question 1748; Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 95.
542 Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 2061.
543 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 276; Ayatollah Sīstānī, in Towzīh al-Masā’el-e Marāje’, proposition 95.
544 www.sistani.org, COPYRIGHT, no. 1.
545 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1341, 1342.
546 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
547 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1341, 1342.
548 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
549 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
550 www.sistani.org, COPYRIGHT, no. 1.
551 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī’s Office.
552 www.sistani.org, COPYRIGHT, no. 1.
553 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1341, 1342.
554 All Religious Authorities’ Offices.
555 www.sistani.org, COPYRIGHT, no. 1.
556 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1343.
557 Ayatollah Sīstānī’s Office.
558 Ayatollah Khāmena’ī, Ajwabat al-Isteftā’āt, question 1341, 1342.
 



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